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Full text of "Maryland in Liberia; a history of the colony planted by the Maryland State Colonization Society under the auspices of the state of Maryland, U. S., at Cape Palmas on the southwest coast of Africa, 1833-1853 ... A paper read before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9th, 1885"

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MARYLAND IN LIBERIA 



A HISTORY OF 






The Colony planted by the Maryland State 

Colonization Society under the auspices 

of the State of Maryland, U. S. at 

Cape Palmas on the South-West 

Coast of Africa, 1833-1853 




A Paper read before the Maryland Historical Society 

March 9th, 1S85 
BY 

JOHN H. B. LATROBE 

PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY 




alHmors, 1885 



\ 









I 












MARYLAND IN LIBERIA. 






I 

I 



3fun&-^?uUicaticm, 



MARYLAND IN LIBKHIA 



A HISTORY OF 



The Colony planted "by the Maryland State 

Colonization Society under the auspices 

of the State of Maryland, U. S. at 

Cape Palmas on the South-West 

Coast of Africa, 1833-1853 




A Paper read before the Maryland Historic:!! Sin 



March Oth, 



H V 



JOHN H. B. LATROBE 

I'UKSlUKNT OF THE SOCIETY 



Diiltimorr. Iss.") 



PEABODY PUBLICATION FUND. 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION. 



^ HISTORICAL Son err, 
BALTIMORE, 18S5. 



ERRATA. 



Page 30, Hue 2, substitute "have" for "has." 

'1. ' 3, "desire" " "desires." 

" 3S. " 2, " "them it." 

" 40, " 19. " " Weah " " " Weak." 
43, 5, " "beach" " "plain." 

' 46, " 15, insert " 1834" after " 29th December." 

58, ' 15, substitute "objectionable" for "objectional." 

" 59, lines 6 and 7, substitute " their" " "its." 



PREFACE. 

When the Maryland State Colonization Society closed its 
active operations in iXIJo, Dr. James Hall, who had been its 
agent and business manager, and the editor of the Maryland 
Colonization Journal, arranged carefully all the hooks and 
papers of the Society and placed them in the custody of the 
Maryland Historical Society. It has been from this collection 

</ 

and from the personal knowledge of the writer that the following 
history has been prepared. He has had, in addition, the memo- 
randa of Dr. Hall to aid him in the work. The material has not 
by any means been exhausted, and the reports of the State 
Society, which are in print, and the ten volumes of the Colon- 
ization Journal are well worthy of examination by those who axe 
interested in seeing how a nation may be built up from its earliest 
infancy, and until it enters as an adult into the family of 
nations. 



MARYLAND IN LIBERIA. 



IN Scharf s History of Maryland. Vol. 3, p. 320, 
it is said, that "at December Session, 1831, 
of the Legislature of Maryland, the .State 

*- 

embarked zealously in the work of African coloni- 

V 

zation and made the munificent appropriation of 
$10,000 for twenty-six years, for the transportation 
and removal of emigrants to Africa ; and the 
State Society was incorporated to accomplish the 
ends it had in view." 

The above, if not as accurate as it might be, 
suffices to inform the general reader that Mary- 
land contributed largely toward African coloniza- 
tion. But the circumstances that induced the 
appropriation, and the history of what ensued in 
this connection until the fund was exhausted, 
deserve a more ample notice. This, the writer 
has again and again tried to persuade others to 
prepare, indicating the materials to be found in 
the Historical Society and placing his own pecu- 
liar knowledge on the subject at their disposal. 
Nothing has been done, however ; and so, the 
writer, unwilling to leave the work undone, while 

7 



L 






8 



time vet remained to him, has undertaken, in 

> 

justice riot only to the State, but to associates 
nearly all of whom have long since passed away, 
to write a narrative, his own connection with 
whose events has hitherto made him prefer that 
other hands should supply what has always 
seemed to him to be an omission in the history of 
Maryland. 

V 

It is certainly a noticeable fact that a private 
corporation of this State should have purchased 
territory in Africa from native kings, with all 
attributes of sovereignty, have planted there 
a colony of emigrants from Maryland, carrying 
with them a constitution, a bill of rights, and a 
svstem of laws that placed them, from the moment 

v 

of landing, in the condition of a well-organized 
community a svstem, one of the fundamental 

/ 

principles of which was total abstinence from the 
use of, or traffic in ardent spirits a system under 
which they lived and throve, until at the end of 

*/ 

twenty years of unbroken prosperity, there was 
transferred to them, at their own request, the sove- 
reign power of the original owners of the soil, 
and they became one of the family of Nations, 
under a constitutional republican government; 
and, although the then so-called ''State of Marv- 

/ 

land in Liberia " afterwards united itself bv treaty 

ft- V 

to the Republic of Liberia, where it is now known 



as Maryland County, its origin and the history 
of its comparatively brief independent existence 
ought not to be absolutely forgotten. 

t/ 

In 1810, the American Colonization Society, 
now in the seventieth year of its existence, sent 
two of its agents to Africa to select a site for a 
colony of free colored people from the United 
States. They selected Sherbro Island, not far 
from the British colony of Sierra Leone. The 

/ 

Society's pecuniary means were limited, and it 
might never have taken possession had not Mr. 
Monroe construed the Act of Congress of 1819, 
which required slaves imported after 1807 to be 
kept, until removed, in custody, as justifying him 
in employing the agency of the Society in remov- 
ing them to their native country. The ship 
Elizabeth was then chartered by the Government 

/ 

and sailed, with emigrants furnished by the So- 
ciety, to Sherbro. This site proving unhealthy, 
the emigrants were removed to another, which 
was equally so ; whereupon the President dis- 
patched Captain Robert F. Stockton, in the armed 
schooner Alligator, to the coast, on a voyage of 

/ O 

exploration, which resulted in the purchase of 
Cape Mesurada from the natives. The deed was 
made to Robert F. Stockton and Dr. Eli Avres, 

t/ 

his companion on the voyage and an agent of the 
Society, in trust for emigrants who might choose 



10 

to settle there. To this place the survivors of the 
emigrants bv the Elizabeth were removed, and the 

m 

seed was planted that has grown and branched 
into the Republic of Liberia. 

It was not long before news came that the colo- 
nists were "turbulent and insubordinate/ u There 
was no civil government; what stood in the place 
of one, was a pure despotism of an agent, resting 
on no legal basis and possessing no physical force 
to compel obedience." l In time this was remedied 
and the reign of law and order was established. 
It is mentioned to show the warning of which the 
Maryland State Colonization Society availed itself 
at a later date. 

To carry on its work the American Colonization 
Society depended upon the collections made by 
auxiliaries. One of the most productive of these 
was in Baltimore. The interest in the subject, 
however, had spread throughout the State; and on 
the 6th of March, 1827. the Legislature directed 
" the treasurer of the Western Shore to pay for 
the use of the Society one thousand dollars, pro- 
vided he should be satisfied that the sum would 
be expended for the benefit of the people of color 
who had been actual residents of Maryland for 

V 

twelve months prior to their embarkation for 

1 See Memorial Volume of Am. Col. Society, pp. 81, 82. 



11 

Africa. A like sum was directed to be paid annu- 
ally to the Society on proof to the same effect. 

Including the emigration of 1828, there had 

O 

been sent to Liberia from various States seven 
hundred and fifty-seven emigrants ; and the pros- 
pects in this respect were so satisfactory that, at 
the annual meeting in that year, the Society 
adopted a resolution offered by Mr. Latrobe, a 
delegate from Maryland, " that the Board of Man- 
agers be requested to ascertain in the course of 
the ensuing year, if possible, the practicability of 
obtaining territory for colonial settlements at Cape 
Palmas and the island of Bulama, on the south- 
west coast of Africa." In support of this resolu- 
tion the advantages of Cape Palmas were des- 
cribed on information derived mainlv from Dr. 

ti 

Ayres, the companion of Captain Stockton, and 
from inspection of the map of Africa. 

In 1829, there was remitted to the Society in 
Washington, between two and three thousand 
dollars, the proceeds of a fair held in Baltimore. 
This was a lar^e sum in those davs : but there 

V 

was a reaction in the feeling that produced it, 
owing to the emigration from Maryland being so 
very small that the parent Society was unable to 
meet the condition on which the payment of the 
State's subscription for that year depended. At 



12 

any rate, all interest in colonization seemed to die 
o tit for the time ; nor was it revival until Robert 
S. Finley, the son of the founder of the American 
Colonization Society, came to Jialtimore in 1H.'J2 
and undertook its advocacy with a rare and 
jwculiar eloquence that attracted crowds to hear 
him. He infused a new spirit into the old friends 
of the cause; and at a meeting held by them 
on the 22nd of February. 18;J2. tin- following 
preamble and resolutions were adopted : 

"Whereas this meeting is of opinion that the 
plan of establishing a colony of free colored people 
from the United States has been proved to be per- 
fectly practicable, through the /ealous, unwaver- 
ing and philanthropic exertions of the American 
Colonization Society; and whereas, greater con- 
centration of effort and multiplication of resources 
than have hitherto been obt;tined, are obviously 

v 

necessary to secure the ultimate accomplishment 
of the great object in \ ,ew, the removal of the 

t/ 

free people of color with their o\vn consent to 
Africa; and when-as, it is deemed expedient to 
endeavor to apply the means that may be raised 
in Maryland to the removal of the free people of 
color of Maryland : and whereas, it is considered 
that such well known application of these means 
will ensure a great increase in their amount, and 
thus materially advance the great aim of the 






13 

Society therefore, resolved, that this meeting will 
proceed to form itself into a State Colonization 
Society, auxiliary to the American Colonization 
Society at Washington, and that its efforts shall 
be devoted under the auspices of that Society, to 
the removal of the free people of color with their 
own consent to Africa." 

Messrs. J. H. B. Latrobe, Peter Hoffman and 
Dr. Samuel Baker were then appointed a committee 
to prepare a constitution, which was subsequently 
adopted and which was the foundation of the sys- 
tem of independent State action under which colo- 
nization was afterwards carried on in Maryland by 
"The Maryland State Colonization Societv," which 

/ ' 

was the name given to the association. 1 

The first act of the Board of Managers on the 

O 

27th of March, 1831, was to resolve to despatch an 
expedition to Liberia in the following June, and 
the Secretary was directed to correspond with the 
Parent Society to obtain such documents as would 
entitle emigrants from Maryland, on their arrival 

> 

'The officers of the Society were (Jeorge Hoffman, First President, 
Thomas Ellicott, Second, and Nicholas lime, Third 1'resident; Alexander 
Nesbit, Thomas E. Bond, Nathaniel Williams, Viet- I'lvsid.-nt.- ; John 
Hoffman, Treasurer; James Howard, Secretary; Mo-es Shepiard, Peter 
Hoffman, Gen' 1 Samuel McDonald, Alexander Fridge, I>r. Samuel Huker, 
Peter Netf, Charles Howard, Solonr.m Etting, J. J. Harrod, Jnhn (Jil.son, 
Ed ward J. Coale, and John II. I!. Latrobe, Managers; Dr. Eli Avres, 
Agent; Solomon Etting, Moses Sbeppard and Charles Howard, Executive 
( ornruittee. 

3 









14 

in Africa, to participate in the rights and privi- 
leges of other colonists. 

A long correspondence followed. It involved 
the principle of independent State action, which 
the Parent Society deprecated as narrowing its 
field for collecting money and emigrants. It 
ended bv the State Society's aoreeinsr to reini- 

i, t- 1 

burse the parent board for whatever expenses 
the emigrants from Marvland rui slit cause in 

~ * C? 

Liberia, to be ascertained bv the colonial a^ent. 

. 

It was with this understanding that the State 
Society despatched the schooner Orion, with Dr. 
James Hall on board as a passenger, with thirty- 
one emigrants to Monrovia, on the 25th of Octo- 
ber, 1831, and the ship Lafayette, with one hun- 
dred and forty-four, in December, 1832. 

It would not be fair, however, to attribute the 
large emigration by the Lafayette to independent 
State action. There can be little doubt that it 
was owing, in great measure, to the so-called 
"Southampton Massacres." 

In August, 1831, sixty-rive whites, men, women 
and children, were massacred in cold blood by 
negroes under Xat Turner, in Southampton 
County, Virginia. Up to this time there had been 
a growing feeling in favor of emancipation in 
Maryland, Virginia and Kentucky. Xow, there 
was a strong reaction ; and stringent laws affecting 



15 

slavery and free negroes were enacted in these 
States. The Maryland law bears date March 12, 
1832, but is commonly spoken of as the law of 
1831, having been passed at December session of 
that year. Its close connection with our subject 
requires a particular reference to some of its pro- 
visions. 

The first section provides for the appointment 
of three commissioners, members of the Maryland 
State Colonization Society, whose duty it is to 
remove from the State the people of color now free, 
or such as shall become so, to Liberia, or such 
other place, without the State, as they may approve, 
and the party to be removed may consent to go to, 
and to provide for their establishment and sup- 
port as far as necessary. 

The second section provides for the payment to 
the commissioners of such sums as they shall from 

\i 

time to time require, not exceeding in all the sum 
of $20,000, during the present year (1832), to 
be applied by them in their discretion for the 
above purpose, with power to make preparations 
in Liberia if they think best. 

The third section requires the Registers of Wills 
and County Clerks to furnish lists of manumitted 
slaves to be removed. If the party refuses to c;o 

J. / 

to Liberia, the Sheriff is required to put him out 
of the State. 

The fourth section authorizes slaves to refuse 
manumission. The fifth enables the Orphans' 



16 



Court to permit manumitted slaves to remain in 
the State. The sixth authorizes manumitted slaves 
to be hired out until their wages pay the expense 
of their removal. The seventh requires the Treas- 
urer to borrow 20.000 to make the first year's 

' 

payment, and the eighth apportions the annual 
payments among the several counties and the city 
of Baltimore. 1 The remaining sections of the Act 

* - 

have no immediate bearing on the present topic. - 

The harshness that prompted the above legisla- 
tion soon gave way to the kindly feeling that had 
always influenced the people of Maryland towards 
the colored population. In but a single instance 
was the Sheriff called upon to remove a manu- 
mitted slave beyond the borders of the State. 

Cotemporaneously with the passage of the Act 
of 1831, the State Colonization Society, which had 
previously existed as a voluntary association, was 
incorporated by the Act of 1831, chapter 314. 

The charter, the extent of whose powers in the 
present connection it is important to note, espe- 
cially authorized the incorporators " to purchase, 

'Although the Act of 1831 left the amount to be drawn by the commis- 
sioners, from the treasury annually, after the first year, to their discretion, 
yet the setond section svhich apportions the sum of sliHiOO as the annual 
contribution of the several countirs and the city of Baltimore, was held 
to limit the commissioners to that amount. See Act of 1852, ch. 20'2. 

2 The law of 1831 was prepared by Henry Brawner, from Charles County, 
one of the ublest members of the Legislature. 






17 

have and enjoy, to them and their successors, in 
fee. or otherwise, any lands, tenements and here- 
ditaments by gift, grant, bargain and sale, devise, 
or other act of any person or persons, body politic 
or corporate whatsoever . . . and to occupy, use 
and enjoy, or sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of, 
all such lands, tenements and hereditaments, 
sroods or chattels, in such manner as thev shall 

o 

determine the best adapted and most conducive 
to the object of colonizing, with their own consent, 
in Africa the free people of color in Maryland, 
and such slaves as mav be manumitted for the 

/ 

purpose, and which is declared to be the sole and 
exclusive object of the said Society." 

It was under this charter that the State Society 
took it upon itself to acquire, by purchase, terri- 
tory in Africa and to exercise a power that had 
the incidents of sovereignty. 

The first use made by the Commissioners of 

\j 

the State fund was to charter the ship Lafayette 
for Liberia, as already mentioned. 

The accounts brought bv the Lafavette on her 

ft< V 

return were so verv unsatisfactory that the com- 

tr ^ 

missioners determined to suspend further emigra- 
tion for the present ; and the active promoters 
<>f the cause in Baltimore became, for a season, 
greatly discouraged. Colonization, however, was 
not to be abandoned because of temporary mis- 



18 

management in Africa, or the want of pecuniary 
means in Washington ; and it came to be asked 
whether Cape Palmas, which had been suggested 
at Washington in 1828, might not, in this emer- 
gency, be found to be a site upon which, with 
due preparation and with adequate pecuniary 
means, a colony miirht be planted that would 

i 

be free from the difficulties that were hampering 
the Society at Washington. 

, 

As far back as October 4th, 1832, Messrs. La- 
trobe, Judge Brice and Charles Carroll Harper 
had been appointed a committee to consider and 
report upon communications that had been re- 
ceived from different parties in regard to new 
settlements in Africa; and on the return of the 
Lafayette, the committee, reirardini? a new settle- 

*/ 

ment as the only alternative to a failure of the 

V 

colonization cause in Maryland, reported the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was adopted. 

" That the Maryland State Colonization Society 

. 

will forthwith establish a settlement on the coast 
of Africa, and will take immediate means to pro- 
cure, both within and without the State, the neces- 
sary pecuniary aid ; and that the committee hereto- 
fore appointed on the subject of new settlements be 
directed to report to the board upon the position 
and details, together with the probable cost of the 
same, and that the commissioners of the State 



19 

fund he requested to lend tlieir aid in such man- 
ner as they may deem proper in this behalf." 1 

In the preamble to this resolution it was recited 
amonir other things that k 'it was believed that a 

O 

settlement thus formed by a Society, whose avowed 
object was the extirpation of slavery in Maryland, 
by proper and gradual efforts addressed to the 
understanding and experience of the people of the 
State, would be viewed with peculiar interest by 
those who advocated colonization on account of 
its tendencies towards liberty." 

v 

f 

On the 28th June, the committee reported that 
"thev had no hesitation in recommending Cape 

v 

Palmas or its vicinity, as the most suitable posi- 
tion for a new settlement to the leeward of Mon- 
rovia. Its advantages were great in a commercial 
aspect, equally so in an agricultural one, and there 
was no reason to believe that its health was not 
equal to that of any other situation on the coast." 
The report was accepted, and the following 
resolutions, after a prolonged discussion of the 
subject, and after amendment, were unanimously 
adopted as the basis of the Society's action in the 
premises. 2 



s, Vol. I, p. 74. 

* \\ itli the views entertained, nowadays, of slavery, it perhaps seems 
.' that there should have been any question as to the propriety of 



20 
"Whereas, the Society have resolved to establish 

/ 

a settlement at some suitable point on the coast 
of Africa, and to take measures to procure both 
within and without the State the necessary pecu- 
niary aid ; and whereas Cape Palmas, or its 

vicinitv, has been recommended as affording ad- 

/ ' 

vantages for such a settlement, which justify steps 
for its more particular exploration and purchase; 
and whereas it is proper, before proceeding to 
make the application for the aid contemplated, 
that the principles upon which it is intended to 
establish the settlement should be distinctly stated 

t, 

for the information of those who may be willing 

adopting the resolutions of the text. But, half a century ago, slavery was 
regarded in the States where it existed as an institution upon whose per- 
manence the wealth and prosperity of so many were dependent, that any- 
thing which, by possibility, might interfere with it, was looked ujton with 
jealousy and distrust. So fixed, indeed, did it seem to be, that even those 
who deplored its existence, seeing no way to get rid of it, and never 
dreaming of the civil war which closed with its destruction, were disposed 
to consider it as a necessary evil, and to leave it with the future to be 
dealt with. The Constitution of the American Colonization Society had 
carefully avoided all reference to it, when it declared the object to be " the 
removal of the jrne people of color, with their own consent, to Africa," 
and the Maryland law of 1X31 found supporters in the belief that, by >uch 
removal, the property in slaves would be enhanced in value or made more 
secure. The action of the State Society, therefore, which frankly declared 
that the extirpation of slavery in Maryland was its ultimate object, was 
/* far in advance of anything that had been done in this connection in the 

slave-holding States, and the discussion of the resolutions was naturallv 
careful and deliberate. Not only was the principle involved to be con- 
sidered, but the effect of the resolutions upon the public, and especially 
their effect on the Legislature, upon which the Act of ls;>l made the 
Society practically dependent for the means of accomplishing its purposes. 



21 



to lend their assistance to the cause of coloniza- 
tion as advocated bv this Society; therefore it is 

f / 

resolved: 

"First. That the Maryland State Colonization 
Society look forward to the extirpation of slavery 
in Maryland, by proper and gradual efforts ad- 
dressed to the understanding and experience of 
the people of the State, as the peculiar object of 
their labors. 

"Second. That the Society believe that this can 

v 

best be accomplished, under existing circumstances, 
by advocating and assisting the cause of coloni- 
zation. 

"Third. That the colonization of the free people 
of color, of the United States, on the coast of 
Africa, will not only promote their own temporal 
freedom and happiness, but be the means of 
spreading the light of civilization and the Gospel 
in Africa. 

"Fourth. And whereas it is desired that the set- 
tlement about to be made should, as far as prac- 
ticable, become a moral and temperate commu- 
nity, which is to be effected in a great degree by 
the character of the emigrants who may leave 
America for a new home in Africa ; and whereas 
the sad experience of this country has shown the 
demoralizing effect of the use of ardent spirits ; 
be it resolved that no emigrant shall be permitted 
to go from America to a settlement of this Society, 
4 



in Africa, who shall not first bind himself or her- 
self to abstain therefrom. 

"Fifth. That the principle of abstaining from the 
use of ardent spirits, except for medicinal pur- 
poses, be incorporated into the local government 
of the settlements of this Society in Africa, so 
that no person shall be capable of holding office 
therein who shall not first pledge himself to ab- 
stain from the use of, or traffic in, ardent spirit, 
with the above exception. 

"Sixth. That this Society believe that in thus 

/ 

uniting the two great causes of colonization and 
temperance, the best interests of both will be pro- 
moted ; colonization will advance with a healthier 
step to ultimate success, and temperance will find, 
in a nation founded on its principles, an illustra- 
tion that must be forever conclusive as to its polit- 
ical benefits and an example all powerful in its 
influences 

"Seventh. That this Society, while they will en- 

/ ' */ 

courage at all times communication with their 
settlements, so as to increase facilities for emigra- 
tion, will make their agricultural character and 
improvement the peculiar object of their solici- 
tude." 

The adoption of the above platform was all the 
more important at this time in view of the attitude 
that the State had recently assumed in regard to 
colonization. 



23 



When, in 1826, the Legislature directed $1.000 
to he paid annually to the American Colonization 
Society, the State occupied the position of any 
other contributor, except as to the application of 
the fund. When the State, in 1831, made its 
appropriation of $10,000 annually, the expenditure 
was not left to the Parent Society, but was conrided 
to commissioners, who might apply it at their dis- 
cretion, as thev did, when thev sent the Lafavette 

* ' * 

to Monrovia, without interfering with the control 
of the Society at Washington in Africa. 

V 

Under the Act of December Session of 1832, 
passed on the 23d of March, 1833, after the return 
of the Lafayette, and three months prior to the 
passage of the foregoing resolutions, the State, 
however, assumed a new attitude in regard to 
colonization. 

After reciting the Act of 1826, the preamble of 
the Act of 1832, ch. 314, continues : 

"And whereas, by the restrictions of said Act, 
the American Colonization Society have not drawn 

> 

upon the treasurer for several years past for the 
appropriations made by the Act aforesaid, for the 
purpose of carrying into execution the benevolent 
designs of the State; and whereas, THE STATE 

HAVING NOW EMBARKED IN THAT GREAT AND 

IMPORTANT WORK, ON ITS OWN RESOURCES, there- 
fore be it enacted, that the several sums appro- 



24 

priated as aforesaid, which have not already been 
appropriated, be and the same are hereby appro- 
priated to the use of the State, as other monies 
now in the treasury ; and be it enacted, that the 

i/ 

said Act is hereby repealed to all intents and 
purposes." 

It is hardly necessary to say that the position 
thus taken bv Maryland strengthened materially 

VI -' 

the confidence of the Board of Managers. They 

i 

had no\v a reasonable expectation that the aid of 
the State, through the commissioners of the State 

fund, could be obtained: and it was only riuht, in 

/ ~ 

all fairness, before it was applied for, that the 
principles upon which the Board were acting 
should be as frankly stated, as they were in the 
resolutions on the 28th of June. 

On the same day, Messrs. Latrobe, Anderson 

*/ ' 

and Howard had been appointed a committee to 
recommend a suitable person to proceed to Africa 
to purchase a site for a settlement at Cape Palmas 
or in its neighborhood, if practicable, under 
instructions which the cjmmittee were to prepare 
and submit to the Board. 

As already said, amonir the passengers in the 

*. ' O 

Orion, in October, LS.'tt, was Dr. James Hall, who, 
on reaching Monrovia, was at once employed as a 
physician by the American Colonization Society. 

JL v w . 

On his passage out, amongst other matters placed 



in his bands for information concerning coloniza- 
tion and Liberia, was a copy of the African Reposi- 
tory, containing the speech already referred to, 
suggesting Cape Palinas as a proper site for a new 
settlement; and having occasion to visit the lee- 
ward coast in the Margaret Mercer. 1 for the pur- 
chase of rice for the emigrants, lie took occasion to 
visit the Cape and see for himself whether the 
place justified the description. The result of his 
examination was a letter to Dr. Ayres, the agent 
of the Society when the Orion sailed, which was 
most satisfactory in regard to the healthiness and 



agricultural facilities of the place. It came into 

O J- 

the hands of the committee after a neu r settle- 
ment had been determined upon ; and when on 
the 6th of June, Dr. Hall himself made his 

'The Margaret Mercer was a ves>el luiilt in Baltimore at the cost of the 
Pennsylvania State Colonization Society, and presented by it to the Parent 
Society. It was called after a Maryland lady, the daughter of (icneral 
John Francis Mercer, of revolutionary fame. Among the friends of colo- 
nization she was the most devoted. Inheriting slaves when they were still 
valuable in Maryland, she manumitted them, sent them to Liberia, and 
during her life watched over their welfare. Intelligent, highly accom- 
plished and refined, she was beloved by all who knew her, and the calling 
of the vessel referred to by her name wa- no more than a recognition of her 
established reputation as an ctlicient and self-sacrificing friend of the cause 
to which she devoted her time and contributed largely tYoni her jn-nmiarv 
means. 

It was an odd coincidence, that it -hnuld have l>ccn in a Baltiniore-hiult 
vessel, called after a Maryland lady, that the voyage \\as made to whit h 
was to be attributed more immediately the establishment of the colony of 
Maryland in Liberia. 



26 

appearance in Baltimore on his way to Washing- 
ton, to meet the Directors of the American Coloni- 
zation Society, it mav readily be understood with 

V * *' 

what satisfaction he was received, especially when 
he expressed his readiness to return to Africa at 
once, if required, to take charge of the proposed 
expedition. It was this and his subsequent inter- 
course with the members of the Board of Mana- 
gers that led the committee to recommend him as 

o 

the agent for the occasion ; although it was not 
until the 9th of September that he was formally 
appointed. 1 

When it was ascertained on the arrival of Dr. 
Hall in Baltimore in June, that he would accept 

1 In a letter addressed, more than fifty years afterwards, to the African 
Repository for October, 188o, Dr. Hall, speaking of his appointment, says: 
"This proposal the \Vriter could nut forbear accepting, although fully sen- 
sible of the responsibility of the undertaking and the many chances of 
failure in the execution of the task to the satisfaction of the .Society or even 
of himself. In the first place his heart was in the cause, not exactly of 
colonization but of Liberia. By a residence of two years at Monrovia he 
had imbibed a deep interest in the colony and formed most friendly rela- 
tions with many of its citizens, especially Russwurm, McGill, Roberts, Day 
and many others. Without vanity or overestimate of his ability, he felt 
that he could better execute the task than any other man they could or 
would-be likely to obtain; and that from his peculiar fitness therefor. His 
early training before and while acquiring his profession had made him 
familiar with business; and in Africa 'he had acquired knowledge most 
invaluable and important for the position. He had attended scared v less 
than one thousand cases of African fever. He was familiar with the African 
trade, with the peculiarities and habits of the natives, well acquainted witli 
the colonists, and able to make good selections of suitable assistants, and 
more than all, had visited the towns on the entire coastline to and including 
the point proposed for settlement. 



27 

the leadership of the proposed undertaking, the 
next tiling to be done was to secure the requisite 
pecuniary means for carrying it on. This was 
afforded by the Commissioners of the State Fund, 
who, on the 9th of July, sent the following reply to 
a note addressed to them on the 7th. 

" Whereas, this Board have come to the conclu- 
sion, after a full and mature consideration, that it 
will not be prudent or judicious to send any emi- 
grants to Monrovia this rear owino- to the circum- 



stances of the colony; and they have no assurance 

* *, 

that the colony will be, for some time to come, able 

> 

to receive as many emigrants as the Board have 

it 

reason to think will be prepared to leave the State 
of Maryland. 

i/ 

"And whereas, the Maryland State Colonization 

\> 

Society have it in contemplation to establish 
another settlement on the coast which would afford 
great facilities for the reception of emigrants from 
Maryland, but find themselves unable to accom- 
plish that object without an advance of funds on 
the part of this Board, therefore 

" Resolved, that the Board will pay in advance 
to the Managers of the Maryland State Coloniza- 

*/ 

tion Society the sum of $30 for every emigrant 

> t> 

which that Society will undertake to transport 
from Maryland to Africa during the present year, 
and provide for their arrival in that country. 

"Resolved, that the Board will loan to the 
Society such further sum as will, together with 



28 

the payment contemplated by the foregoing reso- 
lution, amount to a sum not exceeding S8,000, the 
said loan to be repaid bv the Maryland State Colo- 

/ , 

nization Society's transporting hereafter to Africa, 
at their own expense, emigrants at such a rate as 
the Board of State Managers may stipulate at the 
time of their embarkation." 

At the same meeting a committee was appointed 
to address a letter on behalf of the Board to the 
American Colonization Society, at Washington, 

*. 7 

assuring it that in the steps contemplated by the 
Maryland Society nothing was intended savoring 

*/ -' ft 

of rivalry or opposition to that Society's interest, 
but was prompted by a desire to make colonization 
successful in Maryland to the extent of entire 

\j 

emancipation ; that if this could be done, not only 
would another free State be added to the free 
States of the Union, but an example all powerful 
in its influence would be afforded of the yalue and 
influence of colonization. 

At the same time it was resolyed that the name 
of the 'new settlement should be ''Maryland in 

/ 

Liberia," that the device of the seal of the Society 

/ 

should be a pyramid and palm trees, grouped 
together as an emblem of Africa, with a cross 
above, from which rays descend upon the emblem, 
with the motto: "Ethiopia shall soon stretch 
forth her hands unto God; " the whole surrounded 
by the corporate title of the Society ; and it was 



29 

further resolved, that the flas; of the Society's set- 



tleuients-should be the flag of the United States, 
except that in place of the stars upon a blue field, 
there should be a white cross of equilateral arms. 

On the 9th of October a resolution passed by 
the Board of Directors of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society was received, trusting that the con- 

/ 

templated settlement would prove to the country 
at large the benefits of the colonization scheme 
and contribute to the colonization and hap- 
piness of the African continent. The Board of 
Directors further expressed their willingness to 
receive the emigrants by the first expedition at 
Monrovia or Bassa, until the Maryland Society 
was prepared to make a settlement of its own. 

On the 16th of October it was resolved to 
appoint a general committee of nine to meet 
daily, at twelve o'clock, to expedite and super- 
intend the expedition to Cape Palmas. 1 



'The committee were George Hoffman, Moses Sheppard, Solomon Etting, 
William George Read, Peter Hotf'man, J. H. B. Latrobe, PVanklin Antler- 
son, Charles Howard, and Charles Carroll Harper. The most zealous and 
practically useful member of this committee was the late Solomon Etting, 
a retired merchant of the highest character, who gave to the Society the 
benefit of his great commercial knowledge and accuracy, aiding Dr. Hall 
throughout with the active energy of a younger man, and laying the State 
Society under obligations which cauaot but be referred to when his name 
is mentioned. 



. 

30 



The "turbulence and insubordination' of the 
first colonists has already been referred to, as well 
as the comments of the Memorial Volume in that 
connection. To obviate all excuse for like conduct 
by the emigrants to Cape Palmas and their succes- 
sors, it was determined that they should carry 
with them a constitutional form of government, 
assented to in writing by each individual, to which 
later arrivals in the territory would necessarily be 
subject ; and to this end Messrs. Read, Anderson 
and Latrobe had, on the 2nd of October, 1833, 
been appointed a committee to prepare " a consti- 
tution and form of government and digest of laws 
for the settlements of Maryland in Africa, with 
instructions to ^request the cooperation of David 
M. Ferine and Hugh Davy Evans." 1 

On the 22nd of November, 1833, Mr. Latrobe, 
from the committee, reported a draft of a consti- 
tution and bill of rights to a full meeting of the 
Board of Managers, which unanimously adopted 
them. 

The object of the State Society and the princi- 
ples upon which it acted are so well set forth in 
the preamble to the constitution, that this part 

1 Mr. Ferine' s engagements did not permit him to act on the committee ; 
neither did Mr. Evans'; although, at a later date, Mr. Evans hecame a 
member of the Hoard, and drew almost all the laws that the Society 
enacted. 



31 



of the instrument properly forms a part of the 
text. 1 

''The Maryland State Colonization Society of 
Maryland, one of the United States of America, 

i 

to all persons to whom these presents shall come, 
greeting: 

"Whereas, the Maryland State Colonization 
Society desires to hasten as far as they can the 

*< 

period when slavery shall cease to e.iist in Maryland, 
and beliecinr/ that this can best be done by advo- 
cating and assisting the cause of colonization as 
the safest, truest and best auxiliary of freedom 
under existing circumstances, have determined to 
establish a settlement, or settlements, of free col- 
ored people and emancipated slaves, at or near 
"Cape Pal mas, on the west coast of Africa, to be 
called Maryland in Liberia ; and whereas, it is 

V 

not less the desire of the Society that the evil of 

*/ 

slavery should be removed from Maryland, than 

/ , V 

1 "The meeting at which the Constitution was adopted, last Friday, was a 
very interesting one. By the time the documents presented to the Board 
of Managers were adopted, it was dusk, and two candles were lirought into 
the large grand jury room in which the Board had met. The Constitution 
had l>een engrossed on a >kin of parchment, with the seal of the Scietv 
attached, and Mr. George Hoffman, the President, was the tirst person 
called upon to sign it. He wrote his name in quite a John Hancock Myle, 
and then said, ' May the ldeinic of Heaven rest upon the work that we 
have now commenced.' The room, l>y tlii- time, was quite dark, except 
around the two dim candle-, and the remark of the President was wholly 
unexpected; but as, soon as it wa> uttered there was a simultaneous Amen, 
in which all present most fervently joined." Fr>>m <i Hicni<>,-<iniluiii nui<lt //: 
veiling. 



32 

that the emigrants from the State should find their 

<- 

' happiness and prosperity promoted by their change 

of home, and that through their instrumentality 
the blessings of civilization and the Gospel should 
be extended to a benighted land ; and whereas, 
with these views it becomes the duty of the State 
Society to afford to the settlements thev mav cause 

*/ v v 

to be established a system of equal laws, that shall 
secure to everv emigrant and his descendants the 

n 

inalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit 
of happiness therefore be it known, that the 
Maryland State Colonization Society do hereby 

* / / 

solemnly enact the following constitution as the 

. O 

basis and foundation of government of any and 

V 

every settlement or colony which may be estab- 

f V V 

lishecl as aforesaid under their auspices and con- 
trol in Africa, ratifying and confirming the same, 
according to its tenor, to all emigrants to such set- 
tlements, and their descendants, so long as the 
power of government shall continue to be exer- 
cised by the Maryland State Colonization Societv." 
i / . 

The first article then declares that the State 
Society may from time to time make and ordain 
laws, rules, &c., not repugnant to the Constitution, 
until they withdraw their agents and yield the 

^ O .. 

government wholly into the hands of the people of 
the Territory. 

The second article provides that any emigrant 
of full age shall sign a declaration to support the 



33 

Constitution and an agreement to abstain from the 
use of ardent spirits, except in case of sickness. 

The third article declares that no person shall 
hold anv office who either uses or traffics in ardent 

V 

spirits. 

The fourth relates to the good faith to be kept 
with the natives. 

The fifth that no taxes shall be laid except for 
the purpose of defense, internal improvement, 
education and the support of the local goverment. 
Duties and port charges for the same purposes to 
be imposed from time to time at the discretion of 
the Society. 

. 

The sixth that all elections shall be bv ballot, 

< 

the qualifications to be fixed by the Society. 

The seventh article includes the Bill of Rights, 

O 

and provides for religious toleration, trial by jury, 
prohibits slavery, and may be described as contain- 
ing the provisions that are to be found in like 
instruments in most of the States of the Union. 
The eighth provides for amendments. 

At the same meeting, Mr. Latrobe reported " An 
Ordinance for the Temporary Government of the 
Territory of Maryland in Liberia,' consisting of 

*/ . O 

forty-five articles compiled from various sources, 
the idea being mainly suggested bv Xathan Dane's 

/ i/ 

(so-called) ordinance for the Government of the 
Northwest territory, and was intended to meet the 



34 

exigencies of a comparatively ignorant people begin- 
* ning a political existence. 1 It provided for the 

division of the territory into townships; enacted a 
law of descents; simplified the transfer of property 
by deeds and wills; provided for the proof of. and 
the recording of such instruments; made both real 
and personal property assets in the hands of the 
administration subject to the wife's dower; pro- 
vided for the appointment of guardians and the 
division of the property of the deceased ; for the 
appointment of the Society's agent who was to be 
governor for two years, prescribing his duties; for 
the appointment by him of a secretary, of justices 
of the peace and constables; for the election, by 
the qualified voters, of a vice-agent, two counsel- 
lors, a register, a sheriff, a treasurer and a commit- 
tee on new emigrants ; for the election in each 
township of three select men, and prescribing the 
duties of all elective officers. The qualified voters 
were to be all male colored people twenty-one 
years of age, who had subscribed the oath to sup- 
port the constitution and held land in their own 
right, or who, not holding land, paid a tax of at 

1 The members of the board present when the Con>titntion was signed 
were: George Hoffman, President; John II. B. Latrobe, Corresponding 
Secretary; John Hoffman, Treasurer; James Howard, Recording Secre- 
tary ; Nicholas Brice, Nathaniel Williams, Alexander Nesbit, Vice- 
Presidents, and Moses Sheppard, Peter Hoffman, Solomon Etting, Charles 
Howard, Charles C. Harper, Sam'l Baker, John J. Ilarrod, E. <i. E Iring- 
ton, Wui. George Read and Franklin Anderson. 



35 

least one dollar for the purposes of education and 
the support of government. Xo person to be eligi- 
ble to office who did not know how to read and 
write. 

The ordinance provided also for a Court of 
monthly sessions, "to have jurisdiction in all civil 
and criminal cases not committed to justices of the 
peace," for the clerk and his duties, and for juries; 
no person to serve as juryman unless of the age of 
twenty-live years, of good name and repute, and 
knowing how to read and write. A storekeeper was 
to be appointed by the agent, a surveyor, an 
inspector of arms, a collector, a public auctioneer 
and a librarian. Public schools were carefully 

v 

provided for, and a militia ; traffic in ardent spirit 
was prohibited, as well as traffic generally with 
the natives, without a license from the agent, except 
for labor, food and clothing for the use of the 
emigrant. Grants of land were to be made to 
emigrants, and no person was permitted to hold 
land in the colony who did not reside therein. 
The pardoning power was given to the agent ; and 
bed and bedding, wearing apparel, cooking utensils 
and an axe and hoe were exempted from execu- 
tion. 

The ordinance concluded with providing for the 
assumption by the emigrants of their own govern- 
ment ; ii}) to which time all commissions, patents, 
deeds of public lands, rules and regulations were 



IK, 



36 

to be in the name of the Maryland State Coloniza- 

v 

tiun Society. 

V 

The letter of instructions to Dr. Hall was sub- 
mitted alonj? with the constitution and the above 

~ 

ordinance, was approved, and directed to be 
recorded in full in the letter book of the Society. 

i/ 1 

Along with the instructions, a resolution was 
adopted directing Dr. Hall, in making a purchase 
of territory, to use every effort to prevent ardent 

. ' *- 

spirit forming a part of the consideration, even 
though an increased expenditure of other articles 
would be required in their stead. On this point 
there was much discussion in the Board of Mana- 
gers, and it furnished the only question on which 
a vote was taken bv veas and navs during the 

/ .' *. 

many years of the Society's active operations. 
There were members who refused to authorize any 

*/ 

departure from the constitutional provision -in 
regard to temperance; others again were unwilling 
to put all that had been done at hazard, in the 
face of Dr. Hall's assurance that no instance had 
been known of a purchase of land from the natives 
without rum. The last prevailed and the resolu- 
tion was passed, leaving the matter to Dr. Hall's 
discretion. l 

1 When the vote was taken, Messrs. Hoffman, Harper, Brice, Xesliit, 
Williams, Howard, Kdrin<;lon and Latrolte, S, voted in the affirmative; 
and Messrs. Baker, Etting, Anderson and Sheppard, 4, in the negative. 
Mr. Read wrote a letter saying that lie would have voted, No. 



37 

At last, with every want that could be antici- 

/ 

pated supplied, the brig Ann, of 100 tons, \V. 
C. Langdon, Master, hauled into the stream to take 
her powder on board, on the 27th of November, 
1833, and the flag of Maryland in Liberia, the 
nation that was vet to be, was for the first time 

/ 

floated ; and on the 28th, Dr. Hall, with the Rev- 
erend John Hersey, who had been appointed assist- 
ant agent a few days before, and the Reverend J. 

* 

Leighton Wilson and S. R. Wynkoop, Mission- 
aries of the American Board of Foreign Missions, 
went on board. 1 It was a bleak Xovember dav 

*/ 

when the Ann weighed anchor, and in old times 

O 

the clouded skies and the misty rain, and the fact 

t/ 

that the agent had to be carried from a sick bed to 
his berth in the cabin would have been ominous of 
failure. 

Deeply impressed with the grave responsi- 
bilities they had assumed, the foregoing narra- 
tive shows how, up to the sailing of the Ann, 

1 The emigrants on the Ann were Joshua Stewart, 24 years old, his wife, 
23 and an infant son; James Stewart, 1 ( J ; Pamela Dellanott, Mrs. Stew- 
art's sister, 15 ; William Cassel, 25 ; his wife, 31 ; one son, 2 years ; Jacob 
Gross, 45 ; his wife, 33, and five children, the eldest 10 years; Nicholas 
Thompson, 40 ; Eden Wilson, 2'J, and John Jones. Of these, Stewart was 
a tailor and cooper ; Cassell, who returned to the United States after some 
years in Africa, studied law in the office of Hugh Davy Evans, and went 
back to Liberia as Chief Justice, a sadler ; Jacob < iross, a tanner, a most 
excellent man in all respects; Thompson was a fanner an 1 brickmaker ; 
Nelson, a rough carpenter, and Jones, a boatman. The adults all signed 
the Constitution before embarking. 

6 



38 

the Board of Managers had tried to discharge 

I 

Looking back over the half century that has 
since gone by, it would seem to be but a little thing 
that had been done, even though the Board of 
Managers had been made the agents practically of 
the State of Maryland, by what has been here 
detailed. But it was not so considered at the 
time, and the entire community here in Baltimore 
looked with interest and anxietv for the news of 

m 

the arrival out of the Ann. She was a poor 
sailer; and her voyage would have been tedious 
enough, had not a brisk north-wester set in before 
she had cleared the river, which continued down 
the bay and across the Atlantic, until the vessel 
arrived off St. Ann's shoals, within the coast influ- 
ences. Here she lay for days without other move- 
ment than a dead heavy roll in the swells of the 
sea; and until Dr. Hall's impatience to reach Cape 
Fal mas before the rains set in, led him to embark 
in a lateen sail boat that he had provided for such 
an emergency; and in company with the Reverend 
Mr. Wilson, a sailor and two of the emigrants, 
leave the Ann, at what was virtually at anchor, 
for his destined port. The little craft was soon 
wafted out of sight of the brig and after midnight 
the land breeze gave quite as much wind as was 
wanted ; and on the morning of the third day land 
was made, and on the fifth Monrovia was reached 



39 

and the agent began to collect recruits. Public 
meetings were held, and in a few days thirty volun- 
teers were enrolled ready for service. The Ann 
appeared in due time, and on the sixth day from 
Dr. Hall's arrival, sailed with all on board to Lee- 
ward, stopped at Bassa, where four more volun- 
teers were obtained, and on the llth of February, 
came to anchor in the roadstead of Cape Palmas, 
seventy-five days from Baltimore. While at Mon- 
rovia Dr. Hall had secured the services of George 
R. McGill and James M. Thompson. Mr. McGill 
was from Baltimore, had had a large experience 
during some years' residence in Africa, was an edu- 

/ 

cated man, and subsequently became assistant 
agent at Cape Palmas. Mr. Thompson, who joined 
Dr. Hall to act as secretary of the colony, was a 
person of rare qualifications and was a most valu- 
able addition ; though, perhaps, Dr. Hall's most 
valuable acquisition, for the moment, was a Cape 
Palmas native, who happened to be at Monrovia 
when the Ann arrived, and who rendered great 
assistance in the negotiation for the purchase of 
the territory. 

The news of another settlement had found its 
way to Leeward, and the people of Cape Palmas 
were not unprepared for the grand Palaver which 
was held on the 12th. 

As was anticipated, the item of rum was insisted 
upon as a sine qua non by the natives, when, after 



40 






they had agreed to sell, the question of the con- 
sideration came up; and, for a time, everything 
was at sea. Dr. Hall was peremptory, however. 
After enumerating the trade goods that he was 
willing to give in exchange for the territory, he 
said: "Mv master gave me these to buy a home 

t/ c/ \i 

for these people. If you take what I offer, good ; 
if not, I go my way." Finally, he proposed to 
give, as a substitute for many articles used in 
English and German trafficking in which he was 
deficient, so many silver dollars, with the exact 
and comparative value of which every trader on 
the coast was familiar ; and this being accepted 
as the sun declined, the Palaver was u set," as the 
natives termed it, and the morrow was fixed for 
"making book," or executing the deeds; and on 
the 14th of February, 1834, Parmah, King of Cape 
Palmas ; Baphro, King of Grand Cavally, and 
Weak Bolio, King of Grahway, on the one part ; 
and James Hall, agent for the Maryland State 
Colonization Society, on the other; in the presence 
of George R. McGill and James M. Thompson, 
completed the conveyance, by which the kings 
respectively granted and sold to the Maryland 
State Colonization Society the following tract of 
land "of which we are at this time lawfully seized 



by right of possession and descent, including all 
the rivers, bays, creeks, anchorages, timber and 
mines on the same, that is to say, [here follows the 



41 

description,] 1 reserving so much of said territory as 
is now under cultivation bv the inhabitants thereof. 

tt 

or such as is occupied by us or our descendants as 
towns or villages, with the right of passing and 
repassing up and down all rivers and creeks and of 

traversing all sections of the country not inhabited 

j 

bv colonists of the said Society ; the said Society 

*> / * 

to have and to hold the said land for its special 
benefit and behoof forever ; and we do agree to 
warrant and defend the same against all persons 
whatever ; the said Society to have the power by 
its factors or agents to exercise all authority in the 
above-named territory, reserving to ourselves and 
our descendants the right of governing and settling 
all palavers among our own people so long as we 
shall see fit to occupy any part of said territory ; 
and we do hereby acknowledge ourselves as mem- 

J 

bers of the Colony of Maryland in Liberia, so far 
as to unite in common defence in case of war or 
foreign aggression." 

The deed then enumerated the trade goods form- 
ing the consideration ; and, on the part of the 
Society, it was agreed that within one year from 

v ' \J 

date free schools should be established for the 
benefit of the native children, one at Cape Palmas, 
one at Grab way, and one at Grand Cavally. 2 

1 For the deed in full, see Appendix. 

*The performance of this stipulation was afterwards assumed by the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 



42 

Cape Pal mas, the easternmost of the territory 
conveyed bv the three kings is a narrow headland 

. > c? 

or promontory, about seventy-five feet above the 
level of the sea, once evidently an island, united to 

b 

the main bv a sandv beach, or isthmus, from which 

f *s 

the ground ascends gradually to the interior. 

i 

Approached from the north-west, the outline of 
the Cape is that of three gentle eminences ; that 
nearest the sand beach being occupied in part bv 
the conical huts of King Freeman's chief village 
which overlooks the isthmus. On the windward 
side of the promontory, it is washed by a river 
navigable for several miles by boats, and within 
the bar of which vessels of forty or fifty tons may 
be anchored, or be fastened to the wharf, which, at 
a later day, was built by the colonists. Without 
a mangrove swamp in the neighborhood, and with a 
wide extent of arable land beyond the sand beach, 



either already under cultivation or offering excel- 

O 

lent agricultural facilities, nothing that had been 
promised by Dr. Hall in his letter to Dr. Ay res 
was wanting. The only wonder was that such a 

tt 

site for a colony had been overlooked on the voyage 

* / ~ 

of exploration which in 1816 resulted in the selec- 
tion of Cape Mesarada. 1 

1 In a letter dated April 24th, ls:U, Dr. Hall describes the purchase as 
"resembling the lowlands of JIayti, on which were once the most extensive 
sugar and cofiee plantations in the world." On the 27th January, 1S35, 
the Rev. J. L. Wilson writes, " The location has been a very fortunate one, 



43 

The first question that offered itself after the 
completion cf the purchase, was the site of the 
settlement. Two sites presented themselves; one 
on the Cape, the other on the mainland beyond the 
plain already mentioned. Each had its advan- 
tages. If the latter were chosen the emigrants 
could, at once, have their farm lots located and 
begin to cultivate them ; while on the Cape there 
was no room for agricultural improvement, and 
small town lots only could be awarded to the new 
comers. 

Dr. Hall, with great wisdom, chose the Cape. A 
settlement on the mainland would be at the mercy 
of the natives, who misrht, at anv time cut it off 

/ 

from the landing place and starve it into submis- 
sion to any terms they might choose to exact, if 
they had preferred its plunder to its destruction. 
Upon the other hand, the settlement, if made, as it 
was, upon the cape, would be comparatively inde- 

both as to climate and a fertile soil," and Mrs. Wilson, describing the 
Mission at Fairhope, close by the Cape, says, " There are but few stations, 
perhaps, where the beauty and majesty of nature are more harmoniously 
united. On the south, and very near our door, the sea rolls up its waves. 
On the east we have a beautiful salt lake, extending as far as the eye can 
reach leeward, but not more than an eighth of a mile in width. The north 
presents a rich and verdant plain, through which winds a fresh water 
stream, that we can trace with the eye a great distance from our pia/.x.a. 
On the west we have at one view three native towns and the colonial 
settlement." Mr. Burt, the supercargo of the Eliza, writes, August lii-, 
183o, " that the natural advantages are greater than those of any other point 
on the coast. The anchorage and landing are decidedly the best I have 
seen." 



44 



pendent. Access to the ocean would be open ; and 
the artillery consisting of one six-pounder, on two 
wheels, which was a part of the outfit in the Ann 
if planted on the central eminence which com- 
manded the native town, would give Dr. Hall an 
advantage which King Freeman fully appreciated 
afterwards. Nor was it long before the wisdom of 
the selection was made apparent. 

On the 16th of April, 1834, the emigrants had 
recovered from the acclimating fever without loss, 
and on the 2nd of June all the town lots but one 
were cleared, fenced and planted. A large kitchen 
and rice house, twenty-four feet by sixteen, one and 
a-half stories high, had been built of African mate- 
rials except flooring plank and doors. Also a 
stockade fort and jail, and a native house seventy- 
two feet by sixteen, for the reception of new emi- 
grants, and two others of half that length each. 
The colonists had erected twelve framed houses, 
and four were already shingled and occupied ; all 
were to be completed within a month ; and two 
stone buildings, one of them two stories in height, 
were going up." In a word, things were already 
assuming the appearance of a settlement of civi- 
lized men. 

On the 20th of June, Dr. Hall issued a procla- 
mation setting apart the 4th of July, 1834, as a 



45 

day of public thanksgiving and prayer, concluding, 
after an enumeration of the many reasons fur 

ti 

thankfulness, thus : 

" Being thoroughly impressed with a deep sense 
of favor so signally bestowed upon us by the great 
Disposer of Events, I do hereby appoint Friday, 
the fourth of July next, as a day of public thanks- 
giving and prayer, and I do request that all the 
inhabitants of this colony will, on that day, cease 

/ / / 

from any unnecessary labor ; and that they will 
assemble at our usual place of public worship 
and there join in rendering fervent thanks to 
Almighty God for His abundant mercies and 
special favor bestowed upon us individually and as 
a community ; that we repent of our numerous 
offences according to his revealed law and the dic- 
tates of our own consciences ; that we earnestly 
supplicate a continuance of His guardian care and 
providence, and that he may so endow us with His 
Divine influence that our doings may be acceptable 
to Him, beneficial to ourselves as individuals, and 
alike honorable and profitable as members of this 
infant republic. 

"Done at Cape Palmas this 20th day of June, 
1834. 

"JAMES HALL, Governor." 

,As a consequence of the close connection now 
existing between the State of Maryland and the 

7 






46 

State Colonization Society, through the Commis- 
sioners of the State fund, the annual meetings of the 
Society were generally held at Annapolis during 
the sessions of the Legislature; and on the 23rd of 
January, 1836, the Society met in the senate cham- 
ber, where resolutions were offered by Mr. J. D. 
Maulsby, of Harford ; Colonel Emory, of Queen 
Anne's, of the Senate; Colonel Chapman, President 
of the Senate ; Colonel Ely, of Baltimore County, 
and others, approving the course of the Board 
of Managers, urging the formation of auxiliaries 
throughout the State, and requesting the clergy to 
take up collections for the benefit of the Society 
on the 4th of July. 

By the 29th of December, the colonists had 
turned their attention to farming, and most of the 
farm lots had been cleared and fenced, and things 
generally had fallen into a regular routine. 

Circumstances had, for some time, made the 
agent the supreme authority, and it was fortunate 
that this was in the hands of a practical business 
man, who was also a very determined one. 

After the sailing of the Ann for home, the 
King of Cape Palmas, believing that the stock of 
provisions was becoming short, prohibited Dr. Hall 
from trading with any tribe but his own for rice; 
replying to the governor's reference to the treaty 
of purchase, that he, King Freeman, would do as 



47 

he pleased. Whereupon the governor told him, 
''That unless the people of Rocktown were per- 
mitted to bring in provisions the colonists would 
starve ; that they were as willing to die in one 
way as in another; and that if the king attempted 
to stop by force any trade coming to the colony, 
or intercepted trade goods that might be sent for 
rice, war would begin, and would not end while 
one American was left alive on the Cape, or until 
every native town in gun-shot of the fort had been 
destroyed." 

Making preparation accordingly, Dr. Hall des- 
patched his boat, the following morning, as usual, 
to Rocktown ; when the king sent word, " that it 
was all a mistake ; and that he was sorry for the 
trouble he had given!" This ended all difficulty in 

/ 

regard to traffic ; and Dr. Hall realized the practical 
importance of having the native village and the 
landing place under the fire of his artillery of a 
single srun. 

O O 

Nor was the above the only occasion that illus- 
trated the value of the very meagre battery that 
Dr. Hall had at his command. The natives seemed 
to be constitutionallv thieves. " Thev would slip 

%/ V 

their hands," savs Dr. Hall, " through the watlinsr 

/ 

of the houses and strip the bed-clothes from the 
sick." When he became strong enough, the gov- 
ernor insisted that the king should pay the value of 
the stolen goods. Presently, however, a colonist 



48 

was detected with cassada stolen from a native's 
field. Naturally enough, King Freeman wanted to 
know why the governor would not pay, in the same 
way. for the thefts of his people. " I have a law 
that punishes theft," explained Dr. Hall, "and you 
have not, although it is in your power to make 
one." Fully comprehending this, and learning that 
the a'overnors law came from America, the kin^ 

~ o 

determined to have a law from the same source ; 
and when Dr. Hall returned to the United States, 
Simleh Ballah, ' the king's mouth," came with him 
to procure it. In the meanwhile, however, the king 
appointed two native justices, and t\vo constables to 
detect and punish theft. 

In due time, Simleh Ballah appeared before the 
Board, and said, " I'm Ballah, head man for King 
Freeman, of Cape Palmas. Him send me dis coun- 
try. I come for peak his word. Pose him savee 
book, I no come. He make book and send him ; 
but 'cause he no savee. make book, I come for look 
country and peak him words." He then described 
the condition of his people before the colonists 
came, and the advantages of the settlement to the 
natives, ending by saying that the king told him 
to beg that more men be sent " for make home, 
make farm, for bring money, and for make all little 
childs savee read book all same America man. I 
done." 



49 



Simleh Ballah was a stalwart, very black man, of 
a good presence, with the inner corners of his two 
upper teeth filed away and having a blue line tat- 
tooed from the root of his hair along his nose down 
to his chin. He was as cool and collected before 
the Board as though he were holding a palaver at 
home. A brief and simple code was prepared for 
King Freeman, which will be found in the ap- 
pendix. 1 

The influence of the colon v and the irov- 

, 

ernor was illustrated on another occasion in 
connection with a trial bv the Sassa wood 

*/ 

ordeal. 

'Simleh Ballah was a fine specimen of his people. While in Baltimore, 
his residence was in the Secretary's house; and during the preparation of 
the code, its articles were discussed in the evenings, when the messenger 
was invited to the parlor and held a palaver, nothing heing accepted with- 
out his fully understanding and assenting to it. When the article was 
read declaring that no man should have more than one wife at a time, Sim- 
leh Ballah objected, saying that he had six, that if restricted to one he 
would take the youngest, when, as no ope would take the others, they must 
starve; whereupon postponing the consideration of the particular article, 
the next was taken up. On the following evening, for many evenings were 
consumed in the discussions, Simleh Ballah began the palaver, by siving 
he had " looked his head" (reflected,) during the niirht, and was quite 
ready to adopt the article, in a qualified way ; " that be good law," he *aid, 
"for his pickaninny, but not for him. He would say to his pickaninny 
'you want wife, look good you no hah two wife: ' good law lor pickaninny, 
bad law for Simleh Ballah.'' The idea of o- yx>./ factn legislation was thor- 
oughly understood by the " King's mouth." < >n another occasion, during 
a palaver, Simleh Ballah asked, " Mas-a Tobe," as he called the Secretary. 
"God man [missionary] say, all bad men he burn, you tink so?" "The 
good book says so, Simleh," was the reply. At this time two sous of the 



50 

All sudden deaths of the middle-aged and active 
were often attributed to witchcraft, when, to prove 
the innocence of the person charged by the Gree-gree 
man, he was obliged to drink large quantities of a 
decoction of the bark of a poisonous tree called 
Sassa wood. If he survived, he was deemed inno- 
cent. One of the head men, who had uniformly 
befriended the colony, was charged with bewitching 
the family of a rival, and condemned to the ordeal. 
On hearing this, Dr. Hall called a palaver (a nego- 
tiation with the king and head men) and endeavored 
to have the man released : but altogether in vain. 
On returning home, he was informed that if a supe- 
rior in rank were to take the accused by the hand 

Secretary were in the room. Looking at them, Simleh Ballah said, " Massa 
Tobe, Pose your pickaninny he be bad? you burn your pickaninny, all men 
he be God pickaninny, God no burn his pickaninny." Whereupon, the dis- 
cussion of the code was resumed, and the theological question, which is 
only referred to as an indication of the character of the man's mind, was 
not continued. 

The following is the letter from King Freeman, of which the Reverend 
J. Leighton Wilson, who acted as amanuensis for the king, says, that it is 
in the words used by him "as nearly literal as it is possible for me to 
write them." 

" King Freeman to the Gentlemen of the Colonization Board of Balti- 
more, Xahaveo, [greeting] : 

" Mr. Wilson he be hand for me, and Simleh Ballah be mout for me 
for make dis book ; but de word come from my own heart. He be true. 
I send Simleh Ballah for look you ; he eye be all same as me eye, and dat 
word he peak be all same he come out me own mout. You do Balla good 
when lie lib to your hand, dat be all same you do good for King Freeman. 
I tank you for dat. Ballah tell me you hab fine country. I believe what 
he say, cause he no fit for tell lie. I tank you berry much for dem cash 
you send me. I like urn plenty, and go keep urn all de time. But I tank 



51 

when the potion was about to be administered, he 
could clear him ; but would assume the responsi- 
bility and be liable to supply his place or pay a 
heavy tine. On hearing this, Dr. Hall, cripple as 
he was at the time, set off for the sand beach just 
as the wives and children of the victim were beim? 

O 

driven off after their last farewell. About five 
hundred people were collected in a hollow square, 
in the middle of which the Gree-gree man, in full 
panoply, was just raising a two gallon pot, filled 
to the brim with the decoction, to the lips of the 

* 

accused. Breaking through the square, Dr. Hall 
took the man by the hand, saying as he did so, 
that he would satisfy any one who had cause of 

you berry much for dem law you send me. He be good law, and all my 
people go do him. Pose hab dem law first time, I no go do fool fash all 
time. Dis time I go make all my people do dat ting what you law tell me. 
I tank you plenty, gentlemen, for dem good law. I tell all men go hear 
Misser Wilson talk God palaver, and yisserday so much man go till 
plenty hab for to stand outside de house. 

"Soon Ballah go for Merica first time me go long way bush and tell all 
man say he must make fine road and bring plenty trade for Cape Palmas. 
Me heart tink say he guin do him soon. 

" Me hear say you hab plenty slave in your country, me hab one word 
for peak dem. You must come me country den you be free man for true. 
Dis country be big and plenty room lib here. Pose you come, I peak true, 
me heart be glad plenty for look you. 

" Pose any gentleman want come, me want him for come too. Me heart 
be glad for see dem too much. 

" Me word be done now. I tank you berry much for you dash and you 
law. I go lub you till me dead. Me send you one county chair for you 
look at. Me go put pickaninny country word for you see. 

" A good child loves her father, he loves his mother. 

" KING FKEEMAN, alias PA NEMMAH." 






52 

complaint, and be responsible for all they could 
prove against his friend, and " marched him off," 
to use Dr. Hall's words, " amid the mingled shouts 
and execrations of friends and persecutors." 

On the 24th of December, 1834, General B. C. 
Howard was elected President of the Society, on 
the death of Mr. George Hoffman. 

On the 30th of December it was resolved that 
the town and township at Cape Palinas shall be 
called " Harper," in honor of the late Robert 
Goodloe Harper, who was among the first that 
advocated the cause of colonization in Maryland. 

*t 

and who devoted to its illustration and support 
the full force of his strong and comprehensive 
intellect. 

By the 10th of January, 1835, the Board of 
Managers were in possession of the first map of 
their colony, sufficiently in detail to permit names 
to be affixed ; and, not unnaturally, the members of 
the Board were commemorated so far as the mate- 
rial went. 

Before long, it was deemed necessary to provide 
for taking care of the movable property of the 
Society, and for the protection of their commercial 
interests, which was done by a supplement to the 






r>3 

ordinance for the temporary government, passed 
. on the iMtli of February, 183-5. 

The Board had already been advised that ill- 
health would compel Dr. Hall to resign his com- 
mission as governor; and believing that the colony 
was so firmly established as to permit him to leave 
its affairs in other hands, he applied for leave to 
return to the United States. This was granted, of 
course, but with great reluctance and regret. 

Looking to the circumstances of his appoint- 
ment ; to his presence opposite Cape Palmas, 
with the accidental possession of the volume con- 
taining the description of it, which he was thus 
prepared to verify ; to his letter to Dr. Ayres, 
which reached the Board of Managers w r hen they 
were hesitating in regard to the site of a new set- 

O O 

tlement ; to his arrival in Baltimore on a wholly 
distinct errand when there was difficulty in the 
choice of the leader of the expedition which his 
letter had so largely contributed to promote ; to 
his most remarkable fitness for the work, and to 
his willingness to return on the instant to Africa 
to undertake it ; the Board of Managers felt that 
in parting with Dr. Hall they lost one who had 
entered into their service in a manner that might 
be well regarded as providential. 

Uncertain, for the moment, as to their future 
course touching Dr. Hall's successor, the Board 

8 






54 

accepted the offer of Mr. Oliver Holmes, Jr., of 
Baltimore, as special agent, to proceed to Africa 
and receive from Dr. Hall the property of the 
Society, and to act as temporary governor. This 
he did on the 4th of February, 1836. 

The temporary character of Mr. Holmes' appoint- 
ment, however, made it necessary to provide for 
a successor to Dr. Hall, as agent and governor. 
Hitherto white men onlv had had charge of colo- 

V 

nies from the United States in Africa. The Board 
were satisfied that the time had now come to place 
a colored man in charge; which would relieve the 
colonists from the imputation of being still slaves 
in Liberia, under a white overseer, and at the same 
time vindicate the belief of the Board in the com- 
petency of the emigrants to exercise with credit 
the functions of government. After mature delib- 
eration they selected Mr. John B. Russwurm, of 
Monrovia, as Governor of Maryland in Liberia ; 
nor had they ever any occasion to regret their 
choice. His salary was fixed at $1,000, and $oO(J 

,' 

was added for the maintenance and support of his 
household and estate as governor. 

It had not been long after Dr. Hall's arrival 
at Cape Palmas, in 1834, before he pressed upon 
the Board of Managers the importance of a coin 
for the colony, suggesting something like the Hay- 



55 

ticn coin,* so much below the standard Spanish 
dollar that it would not be exported. "At present," 
he said, " every colonist, in order to purchase pro- 
visions or pay a native for work, is necessitated to 
have on hand a full assortment of merchandise." 
There were many difficulties in regard, to a coin, 

V 

however, and nothing was done at the time ; but 
it occurred to the Board of Managers that as tobacco 
had been made a currency in Maryland ; cotton. 

V */ 

for the production of which the soil was well 
adapted, might be made the currency, for the time 
being, of Maryland in Liberia ; and, accordingly, 

V J C- ' 

the Board passed an ordinance " to promote the 
growth of cotton in the colony of Maryland in 
Liberia; to afford a circulating medium for the 
same, and to provide for the general welfare 
thereof." The ordinance provided for an inspector 
of cotton, made clean cotton a legal tender, at ten 
cents a pound, and provided in detail the machin- 
ery required to give the ordinance effect. 1 

- 

The Board of Managers had more than once 
requested the government to order vessels of the 
United States, on the African station, to visit Cape 
Palnias instead of being confined to Monrovia; and 
in December, 1836, the Potomac cast anchor in the 

1 This ordinance never went into effect. By the time a sufficient quan- 
tity of cotton had been raised in the colony, another plan was adopted that 
obviated its necessity. 



56 

harbor, adding greatly to the prestige of the colony 
with the natives, who had been altogether incredu- 
lous as to the Americans ever having any large 
vessels of war. 

Captain Nicolson's report was most favorable, 
"Already," he says, *' with a population of only 
one hundred and ninety-one colonists, thev have in 

.'' V 

cultivation forty-seven farms, laid out on each side 

\> 

of the Maryland Avenue, beyond Latrobe, chiefly 

of five acres, and a farm of fifty acres, intended as 

i 

a model. Thev have a crood road of four or five 

*/' O 

miles in different directions. Mr. Wilson, at the 
missionary establishment in Latrobe, has under his 

/ 

tuition about one hundred of the native children 
and a few adults. 1 

In 1837, Mr. John II . B. Latrobe was elected 
President of the Society, an office that he held 
until elected President of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society in 1853. 

v 

On the 29th of September, the Board passed an 
ordinance for the redress of injuries in the colony 
of Maryland in Liberia. This ordinance, which 

nt 

occupies 105 pages of the Book of Laws, printed 

1 Before Captain Nicolson left Cape Palmas he sent to the Governor .1 
six-pounder grenade with the carriage complete, one barrel common pow- 
der, 400 musket ball cartridges, eighteen stand of grape for six-pounders, 
and other most acceptable ammunition and implements. 






57 

bv the Board of Managers, was prepared with 
great care and after much consideration by Mr. 
Hugh Davy Evans, as well as one for the better 
administration of justice, and another for the 



better regulation of property in the colony of 
Maryland in Liberia. All demonstrated the legal 
knowledge and great practical skill of the 

author. The preparation of these ordinances was 
1 L 

a labor of love with Mr. Evans, to which he 
devoted his whole time ; nor can this occasion be 
permitted to pass without paying a tribute to one 
of the best, the most honest and the purest mem- 
bers of the Baltimore bar. 1 

During the agency of Mr. Russwurm, the want 

O / 

of a circulating medium was not less felt than Dr. 
Hall had found it, and on the 10th of October, 

1837, the Board of Managers resolved that for the 



purpose of creating a circulating medium for the 
colony, and in view of the disadvantages to which 
the colonists are subjected for want of one, and it 
being thought that for the present a metallic one 
could not be kept in the Colony, there shall be 
prepared notes of the Society to the amount of 



3 When Maryland in Liberia, was absorbed in Liberia proper, it 
became subject to the laws uf the latter State, and Mr. Evans' work ccix-il 
to be valuable as binding authority ; but it may still be referred to as a 
monument of knowledge and skill in the Library of the Maryland His- 
torical Society. 









58 

eii>-ht hundred dollars, afterwards increased to 



j $1,450, be signed by the President, and before 

issued, countersigned by the Governor of Maryland 

in Liberia, which shall be receivable at the govern- 
ment store for goods purchased there. 



In order to make this paper currency, which was 
prepared in sums of 5, 10, 25, 50 cents and one 
dollar, acceptable to the natives, the Board of 
Managers were aided by a custom which required 
a purchaser to dash, or make a present of, a por- 
tion of the article boutrht, to each of the bv- 

/ 

standers. It did not take the natives long to find 
out, that bv selecting their own time for realizing 

/ O 

these notes at the public store, they could save the 
objectional dashes. To help them to understand 
the value of the notes, a head of tobacco was 
engraved on the live-cent one, a chicken on the 

o * 

ten-cent, a duck on the twentv-live cent, two ducks 

V 

on the fifty-cent one, and a goat was on the dollar 
note. These notes constituted the currency of the 

colon v for years. 1 

/ / 



1 It had been intended to place a fac-siniile of one of these notes in the 
Appendix, and the State Society's printer, or his successor, rather, who 
occupied the old .stand and had fallen into possession of all the former's stock, 
was applied to, in the feeble hope that at the end of lifty years, the blocks 
from which the animals and the head of tobacco had been printed, might 
still be in existence: but it so happened that within a week only of the 
application they had been destroyed as worthless! 



59 



On the loth of January, 1841, the Board of 
Managers appointed Dr. Hall their general agent, 
an office to which he added that of editor of the 
Maryland State Colonization Journal ; and it is 
due to him to say that when the Board became 
interested in African trade on its own account, as a 
means of increasing its resources, its unusual sue- 

O 

cess was largely, if not altogether, due to the expe- 
rience, industry and integrity of their general agent. 

/ t, O 

Things had bv this time settled down at Cape 

/ 

Palmas into the routine of a well-regulated com- 
munity, and was attracting settlers whose relations 

/ * 

were not in all respects provided for by the 
original ordinance. Further legislation became 
necessary, and on the 2nd of February, 1841, u a 
declaratory ordinance touching the sovereignty of 
Maryland in Liberia," was enacted. 

v 

This, after reciting the facts connected with the 
founding of the settlement, declares that under the 



10 

fc 

H 

10 



MARYLAND STATE COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Baltimore, 

10 




, 1837. 



\ _^ 

\ 



10 



Thin not? icill be receired for 

TEN CENTS at /! < im-ernmfiit Store, in H<tr/,n; 
Maryland in Liberia, Africa, in payment for c/oods. 

G'lttrnor nf Mil. in I.ili'rin. f'r-f'l Mil. .'V<r^ Col. Soi-ir.fy. \ 







H 
CD 



Constitution of 1833, Maryland in Liberia was, 
and of right ought to be, sovereign and indepen- 
dent of all authority not provided therein ; that 
the constitution, and the laws, ordinances and 
treaties made under its authority were the supreme 
law of the land, to which all persons within the 
territory ought to conform ; that emigrants from 

tt 

the United States and all persons born in the ter- 
ritory owed allegiance to the government of Mary- 

r- O */ 

land in Liberia and to none other; that residents 
merely, owed a temporary allegiance, without 
prejudice to the rights of the natives under the 
deeds from their kings and headmen, or treaties 
with them. The ordinance then declared who 
should be regarded as citizens ; and enacted that 
the Government of Maryland in Liberia held its 

V 

right of government and property in trust for the 
benetit of the citizens ; and that no other person or 
persons in America had any beneficial interest in 
the government or property, which ought to be 
held and exercised for the purpose aforesaid. 

The reason for the above ordinance was a diffi- 
culty that, in 1838, grew out of a tine imposed by a 
court-martial upon a colonist employed as a teacher 
in the Congregational Mission. The question of 
the sovereignty of the government of the colony 
was then discussed with one of the Secretaries of 
the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 



61 

Missions, who visited Baltimore for the purpose; 
when the views expressed in the above ordinance 
were maintained, and were referred to in a letter 
from the American Board, dated July llth, in which 
it was " recognized that the agents of the State So- 

O O 

ciety at Cape Palmas were the government of the 
territory ceded to the Society by the native owners 
and occupants ; and that the missionaries and the 
assistant missionaries of the Board of Missions, 
residing in the territory, owed the same sort of 

t ' 

deference to the government thus instituted as 
would be expected from foreigners in America." 

In 1841, a similar question arose in regard to the 
right of Governor Russwurm to require civilized 
young men, in the employment of the Mission 
from Cape Coast and Sierra Leone, to perform 
military duty. When the matter was brought 

/ V 

before the Board of Managers, the Governor's 
ri^ht was maintained. 






Looking back, after the lapse of so many 
years, we may regret the necessity of raising this 
particular question, which led ultimately to the 
removal of the Congregational Mission; but the 

<^D c~> * 

condition of the colony seemed to admit of no alter- 
native. It is well stated by the committee. " The 
colony," it says, "being very small in numbers, 
with imperfect means of defence, and surrounded 
9 



62 

by barbarian tribes, is continually exposed to 
I assaults or invasion, which can only be repelled 

by every resident exerting his utmost energy in 
defence of the common weal. No one, therefore, of 
a small colony can be exempted from that mili- 
tary training which alone prepares a body of civi- 
lized and disciplined men to defend themselves 
against a more numerous but undisciplined enemy. 



T " 



Another occasion for asserting the dignitv of the 

o ~ / 

colonial government, grew out of an appeal by the 
agent of the Congregational mission to the com- 

o o o 

mander of the United States ship Vandalia, for 
redress against King Freeman, one of whose peo- 
ple was charged with having robbed the mission ; 
when an officer was sent ashore, who, after a 
drum-head court martial, compelled the king to 
compensate the damage the agent refusing per- 
emptorily to resort to the colonial court for redress. 
As a matter of course, the Board of Managers 
protested against the proceeding to the American 
Board ; when the latter at once admitted that 
an apology was due to the Society and to Gov- 
ernor Russwurm ; attributing the occurrence to 
the absence of the chief of the mission, and the 
recent arrival and ardent temperament of the party 
committing the offence. 

It is interesting to examine the record of the 
proceedings of the agent and Council at this period, 



63 

to observe how w r ell the interior government of the 
colony had been provided for, and how smoothly 
the machinery was working ; for example : 

On the 13th of April, 1839, " road masters were 
appointed, to have the same power as the select 
men. Fines were imposed for non-attendance at 
quarterly parades. On the 9th of December, pre- 
parations were made for celebrating the anni- 
versary of the colony, February 22nd. Six guns 
were to be fired at sunrise to denote the age of the 
colony ; thirteen at noon to denote the original 
number of the United States ; and the same number 
at Mount Tubman, a settlement at the end of the 
Maryland Avenue, five miles inland. At the same 
meeting, Captain Anthony Wood, of the Latrobe 
Artillery, was appointed major of the military 
forces of Maryland in Liberia ; and an order was 
passed that the committee on the subject meet on 
New Year's Day to award the premium to the 
owner of the best cultivated farm. 

On the 28th of August, 1840, to shoot at, or kill 
deer or other game on the Sabbath was prohibited, 
under a penalty of ten dollars, one half to the 
informer. 

These references are of interest in the same way 
that one is interested in watching the processes of 
bees in their glass hives. 

\ 

Among other resolutions of the C4overnor and 
Council, about this time, was one imposing a duty 



64 

on imported articles and establishing an anchor- 
age charge. So far as it fixed the import duty, 
it was revoked by the Board of Managers. The 
subject was a very important one, requiring grave 
consideration and involving the preparation of a 
system full of details, and to be adopted only after 
mature deliberation. In withholding their assent 
the Board, however, promised to take up the sub- 
ject at an early day. 

In their 10th Annual Report the Board of Man- 
agers say, "that at the end of seven years they can 
speak with confidence of the temperance principle, 
which thev had made fundamental in the constitu- 

V 

tion ; and they firmly believe that, under Provi- 
dence, the remarkable success that has attended 
the settlement a success to which history affords 
no parallel the harmony that has prevailed 
between the colonists and the natives, are to be 
attributed to the strict observance of the colonial 
law in this respect." 

In 1843, the colony had begun to attract visitors, 
who claimed exemption from its laws ; and on the 
:Mth of January an ordinance was enacted " for 
the better maintenance of the authority of the 

K 

government -of Maryland in Liberia," which pro- 
vided that all persons above the age of fourteen 
years who should arrive in the colony, except com- 



65 



manclers, officers, and other persons attached to 
vessels of war, and the masters, supercargoes and 
officers and seamen of merchant vessels, and such 
passengers as merely called with no intention of 
remaining, should report themselves within ten 
days after their arrival to the colonial secretary : 
and the ordinance went on to provide the mode of 
carrying the law into effect, and enacted further, 

i/ 

a mode by which colored persons might become 
citizens. 

The above ordinance is referred to as showing 
that the authority of the Board of Managers in 

V 

Africa was not always, in the beginning, admitted 
as frankly as it had been by the missionary board 
in the discussion already spoken of. 

In 1843, a light-house, that had been erected of 
stone not long after the settlement on the Cape, 
was furnished with an apparatus from England, the 
light being visible twenty miles at sea. Before 
this, light had been supplied by an iron vessel 
filled with palm oil to feed a wick, until some- 
thing better was obtained ; very much in the same 
way that the headlands of Great Britain were 
lighted by fires kept burning in iron vessels in the 
olden times. 

On the second of November, 1843, the Board of 
Managers complied with their promise, and sent to 



66 

the colony an ordinance "to raise a revenue for the 
support of government in the colony of Maryland 
in Liberia, and for other purposes." This, before 
going into operation, was submitted to Governor 
llusswurm and its provisions were made known to 
the colonists. These desired that, "if any duty 
was to be levied," it should be upon sales and not 
upon imports. On this point the Board would not 
yield. Such a duty as the colonists preferred was 
essentially an excise, requiring for its enforce- 
ment a power to collectors to make searches, admin- 
ister oaths, and exercise authority inconsistent with 
liberty. 

The time spent in these discussions, however, 
was not wasted. A tariff of duties was at last 
tixed which was satisfactory, when accompanied 
with a warehouse system, which obviated the objec- 
tion that only those who could afford to advance 
the duties could engage in trade. 

Finally, an ordinance was passed on the 9th of 
July, 1846. The forms were those in use in the 
United States, adapted to the circumstances of the 
colony. In the preparation of both ordinances 
the Board of Managers had the assistance of a 
member of the committee, Dr. James H. McCul- 
loh, long deputy-collector in the Baltimore custom 
house, a gentleman distinguished not only for his 
moral worth, but for his great learning and 



67 

research. It is not necessary to enter into the 
details of a tariff which has long since ceased to 
exist, or to have other interest than as showing 
the nature of the duties of the Board of Managers 
while executing their sovereign powers in promoting 
the happiness and prosperity of a people which 
finally became an independent nation under their 
auspices. 

The revenue from the tariff for the first seven 
months after it went into operation was $500, and 
the following year's estimate was 1,200. 

In their report for 1845, the Board of Managers 
were able to announce that the Society was out of 
debt, awarding to Dr. Hall, the home and general 

O O 

agent, the credit due to the judicious economy on 
both sides of the Atlantic that had produced this 
result. 

In 1845, the State of Maryland had not extri- 

; 

cated herself from the condition in which she was 
placed by the failure, in 1837, to meet the interest 
on her public debt ; and on the 18th of January, 
1845, the chairman of the committee of ways and 

V 

means, of the House of Delegates, wrote to the 
President of the Society to know, whether the 

*/ 

annual contribution of 10,000 could not be dis- 
pensed with. "There is a disposition," the chair- 
man says, "to convert it from that object to the 



68 

payment of interest on the public debt, and the 
committee are directed to enquire into the expe- 
diency of doing so. If possible to spare the money, 
do not thro\v any impediments in the way. The 
public mind is much tranquillized by these small 



savings." 



In reply, after enumerating the sources of in- 
come on which the Society relied, independent of 
the State's appropriation, and going somewhat in 
detail into what had been accomplished, exceeding 
anything that had ever been effected, not only in 
Africa, but even in America ; and dwelling upon 
the fact, that it was in reliance that the legislation 
of 1831 would not be interfered with, that the colo- 
nists left their old homes to establish new ones in 
Africa, the President concluded by stating " that 
he could not believe that any saving that could 

V 

be effected by diverting the appropriation would 
tranquillize the public mind as much as it would 
be disturbed by the loss of the colony upon whose 
future availability the prosperity of Maryland 
might most materially depend." 1 

It was with a feeling of great relief that 
the Board of Managers saw the Legislature 
adjourn without affecting the law of 1831. In 
truth, however, there was less risk than had 
been imagined. When the matter came to be 

1 This letter was written forty years ago, when public sentiment was very 
different from what it is to-dav. 



69 



talked over among the members of the Legislature, 
as was afterwards ascertained, the very weakness 
of the colonists became a power when it appealed 
to the good faith and honor of Maryland. 

O ; 

Year after year collections had been made for 
the especial object of building a vessel for the use 
of the Society, but the amount had been compara- 
tively insignificant ; nor did the idea take a prac- 
tical shape until after Dr. Hall became the general 
agent of the Society ; when on the 25th of February, 
1845, the Chesapeake and Ohio Trading Company 
was incorporated, " to carry on and maintain a line 
of packets between Baltimore and Liberia, and for 
carrying on lawful commerce on the coast of 
Africa." As soon as the company was organized, 
the State Society made over to it these collections, 
and agreed to guarantee an amount of freight and 
passage money annually of $2,000. This, with 
prior subscriptions, sufficed ; and on the 9th of 
November, 1846, the Board of Managers attended 
the launch of one of the handsomest vessels that 
ever sailed from the port of Baltimore, duly chris- 
tened the Liberia Packet. 1 

About this time the Board of Managers were 
asked to receive as an emigrant a person who had 

1 The Liberia Packet made 12 voyages to Cape Palmas. She was found 
to be too small for the increasing trade and was sold after the last voyage. 

10 



70 

been convicted of a minor offence and pardoned on 
condition of emigration to Maryland in Liberia; 
and although their sympathies were with the 

O 

individual, under some peculiar circumstances, the 
Board refused the application. To admit that the 
punishment of crime could be condoned by becom- 
ing a colonist, would place the colony in a light 
that the Board of Managers could not permit. 

Although it had been deemed necessary to o;ive 

~ / 

to the agent, in the early days of the colony, cer- 
tain judicial powers ; yet it was necessary after the 
growth of the settlement in numbers and its exten- 
sion inland, to separate the functions of the execu- 
tive and judiciary ; and on the 18th of May, 1847, 
an ordinance to that effect was enacted u for the 
better administration of justice in the colony of 
Maryland in Liberia," providing for the appoint- 
ment by the State Society of a chief justice, to 
have all judicial power and authority not expressly 
prohibited or conferred upon others; for a court 
of monthly sessions ; for the clerk, prescribing 
his duties; for an orphans' court, with the chief 
justice its chief judge and the register of the colony 
its clerk ; for fixing the commissions of adminis- 
trators, guardians and insolvents' trustees ; making 
the chief justice presiding officer of the court of 
monthly sessions; requiring justices of the peace 
to send parties convicted of any offence to the chief 



71 

ju.stice for sentence to labor on the public farm; 
providing for the absence of the chief justice; for 
vacancies in his office; for two associate judges of 
the court of monthly sessions ; for admitting prac- 
titioners of law and for the repeal of inconsistent 
ordinances ; and on the 6th of September, follow- 
ing, William Cassell was appointed chief justice. 1 

On the 14th of August, in the same year, the 
Board directed that ''the ordinances passed up to 
that date, and printed by John D. Toy, under the 
supervision of Hugh Davy Evans, Esquire, should 
be confirmed as the laws of Maryland in Liberia, 
and that the book containing them, entitled, " The 
Constitution and Laws of Maryland in Liberia," 
with an appendix of precedents, published by the 
authority of the Society, second edition, is hereby 
approved and declared to be a standard edition of 
the said constitution and laws." 2 

Governor Russwurm having applied for leave of 
absence to visit the United States, Dr. Samuel F. 
M'Gillwas appointed assistant agent in his absence 
on the 7th of April, 1848. 

1 Mr. Cassell had been one of the first settlers by the Ann ; and after a 
residence of some years at Cape Palinas, returned to Baltimore to read law 
in the oifice of IIu<j;h D. Evans, where he became, with Mr. Evans' special 
assistance in his studies, prepared for the office now <;iven him. 

* Copies of this volume were directed to be deposited in the Maryland 
State Library, at Annapolis, and in the Maryland Historical Society, 
where they are now to be found. 



The members of the Board of Managers took 
advantage of Governor Russwurin's presence in 
Baltimore to make his personal acquaintance. 
They gave him a dinner at the principal hotel in 
the city, at which there were no absentees ; and 
there was not one present who was not impressed 
by the grave, courteous and dignified bearing of 
the agent whose wise and prudent conduct of the 
Society's affairs in Africa had given such satis- 
faction. 1 

In 1850, the colon v had been fifteen vears in 

> */ 

existence ; and religious associations had been 
formed among the colonists that seemed to call 
for a mode of organizing them by law ; and on the 
18th of January an ordinance was enacted "to 
enable the citizens of Maryland in Liberia more 
conveniently to provide and maintain, at their 
own expense, public worship," enabling male per- 
sons of 21 years of age, belonging to any religious 
society, to make rules for their government in 

/ ' 

writing, and generally to have the authority ordi- 
narily conferred in such cases. 



'One, with difficulty recalls, now-a-days, the sensation that the idea of 
this dinner to a colored man in 1847, produced in Baltimore. It was 
ludicrous to see the astonishment of the Irish waiters, who surrounded 
the table at "Page's Hotel," when they were called upon to render the 
same service to a colored man that they were in the habit of rendering to 
the many socially prominent citizens who were his hosts. 













73 

At a meeting of the Board of Managers, held on 
the 21st of October, 1851, intelligence was received 
of the death of Governor Russwurm, who died at 
the Government House at Cape Palmas on the 
preceding 9th of June. He had held his office 
since 1836, with honor to himself and greatly to 
the advantage of the Society. Deeply impressed 
with the loss they had sustained, the Board of 
Managers deemed it proper to send an address to 
the citizens of Maryland in Liberia ; in which, 
among- other things, they say, in reference to his 
having been the first colored governor of a colony 
from the United States on the coast of Africa, " if 
white men have ceased to hold office or exercise 
authority among you, it is because the capacity of 
your race, if ever doubted, to fill the highest politi- 
cal offices with rare ability, has been vindicated by 
Governor Russwurm. ... In the long career of 
happiness and prosperity which is opening to 
Liberia, its highest offices will doubtless be filled 
by people of worth and talent. But great and dis- 
tinguished as these may be, their possessors may 
always resort with profit to vour earliest history to 

v -L v \j 

gather from the records of Governor Russwurm's 
life the most honorable examples of prudence, 
wisdom and integrity." 1 

'At the same meeting it was resolved that a monument to the memory of 
Governor Russwurm should be erected at Cape Palmas. This was done at 
once. The design was an obelisk, on a heavy granite base, on which were 



74 

The assistant agent, Dr. Samuel F. M'Gill, was 
now acting governor; and in his despatches of July 
12th, 1852, announced the prospective abolition, at 
last, of the sassa wood ordeal. A violent assault 
on a colonist who had endeavored to rescue a 
native woman from the Gree-gree man, was taken 
advantage of by Governor M'Gill to insist on a 
palaver, at which power was given to the colonial 
authorities which would have the effect of abolish- 
ing the custom. 

On the 3rd of May, 1852, the General Assembly 
of Maryland continued the Act of 1831 for six 
years, " it being desirable that the appropriation of 
ten thousand dollars, per year, should be renewed 
and continued, so that the policy of the State in 
providing a home in Africa for the emancipated 
slaves and free colored population, and for their 
removal thither, may be carried on." The Board 
of Managers could have had no better proof of the 
satisfaction with which their proceedings were 
regarded than was thus afforded by the Act of 
1852. 

engraved the following inscriptions. On the north side, "In memory of 
John B. Russwurm, born 1799, died 1857 ; " on the south side, "Able, 
learned and faithful an honor to his race;" on the east side, " The first 
Governor of African descent appointed in Liberia;" on the west bide, 
" Erected by the Maryland State Colonization Society, as a tribute of 
respect for eminent services." The design of the monument, as erected, is 
shewn in the Md. St. Col. Journal, vol. (i, p, 349. 



to 

As might have been anticipated, the continued 
prosperity of the colony since its establishment in 
1834, and the irksomeness of dependence upon 
remote legislation and control, had begotten a 
desire for independence that manifested itself by 
an address to the Board of Managers, dated 
Xovember loth, 18-51, from a committee of the 
most prominent and useful citizens. 

"The people," say the committee, "wish the 
Board to know that all thev do is intended to 

i 

meet their approval:' 1 and then the committee go 
over the whole ground in a well prepared paper, 
which, on the 27th of July, was presented to the 
Board of Managers and referred to a committee, of 
which Mr. Charles Howard was chairman ; and 
which reported, "that while on many accounts it 
would have been desirable that existing relations 
should remain on their present footing until the 
colony should have realized a larger emigrant 
population, and by a further development of its 
resources, have been prepared to assume a more 
commanding position as an independent nation, 
yet, the entire political separation which had taken 
place between the old Colony of Liberia and the 
Parent Society, and the recognition of the former 
and making treaties with it as an independent and 
sovereign power by England and France, had given 
to it a prestige which did not attach to our colony, 
and convinced the committee that the old colony 



76 

would continue to attract to itself bv far the greater 

* 

part of the most enterprising and best informed emi- 
grants from the United States and from Maryland, 
until the citizens of Maryland in Liberia shall 

> 

have assumed the same position by becoming inde- 
pendent of all foreign jurisdiction." 

The committee, then, after expressing their pre- 
ference for the formation of such an union with 
the elder colonies, as exists between the States of 
the United States, recommended, as a precedent, 
the course pursued in the separation of the older 
colony from the American Colonization Society. 

Whereupon, it was resolved, that the citizens of 
Maryland in Liberia be advised to call a conven- 
tion to prepare a constitution to be submitted to 
the people, and that they appoint commissioners 
to visit Maryland to agree with the Board of Man- 

s O 

agers upon the terms of the separation. 

In due season, the chief justice/ Mr. Cassell, and 
Mr. William A. Prout appeared in Baltimore as 
commissioners; and on the 12th of January, 1854, 

V * 

presented their credentials to the Board along with 
the constitution adopted by the people. This, after 
much discussion, was approved with a single 
exception. The temperance clause had been 
omitted; and not being willing to reject the entire 
instrument on this account, the Board of Managers 
contented themselves with saying that they trusted 



77 

that upon further reflection the people would 
reconsider their action, and would not abandon 
that part of their fundamental constitution which 
had so long tended to promote good order, morality 
and religion in the colony. 1 

Then followed the agreement, dated February 
14th, 1854, between the Maryland State Coloniza- 
tion Society on the one part, and William Cassell 
and William A. Prout, Commissioners of the Peo- 
ple of Maryland in Liberia, of the other part, 
which, if duly ratified within the space of twelve 
months by the people of Maryland in Liberia, was 
to be binding on the Society and on the govern- 
ment and people as aforesaid. See Appendix. 

1. The Society agreed to cede all its public 
lands within the territory to the people and gov- 
ernment of the republic, subject to the following 
conditions. 

All future emigrants were to be allowed a farm 
lot of ten acres, or a town lot of one-quarter of an 
acre, in any new settlement. In future sales by 
the government, of public lands, every alternate 
farm, or section, or square mile to be left to be 
assigned to emigrants. 

1 It is proper to say that the citizens of Maryland in Liberia did recon- 
sider their decision ; and when their constitution was returned to them, 
they restored the prohibition of the use of or traffic in ardent spirits which 
they had stricken out. 

11 






78 

, Sales were to be by auction to the highest bidder. 
If public sales could not be effected private sales 
might be made. 

The tracts reserved for emigrants might be 
exchanged for others of equal value, or sold ; the 
proceeds to be devoted to public education. 

Ten per cent, of all public sales of land were to 
be appropriated to the use of schools or for educa- 
tional purposes. 

The Society to have the right, as at present, of 
locating emigrants in any present or future settle- 
ments. 

New settlements were to be made by the con- 
current agreement of the government and the 
Society. 

Land held for the use of emigrants to be exempt 
from taxation. 

In the case of recaptured Africans, the Society 
were to have the right to claim and have set apart 
for their use, one hundred acres, as the Society 
might require, out of the public lands. 

The Society to retain the public store and adjoin- 
ing wharf, and the west half of the public farm. 

All the property of the Society, with improve- 
ments made thereon, to be exempt from taxation 
while in the Society's hands. 

ki 

2. The Society to introduce, free of duty, stores 

/ / 7 

for the use of emigrants, or to be sold for provid- 






79 

ing for them. The Society's vessels to be free from 
anchorage or light duties. 

3. Recaptured Africans to be admitted, should 
the United States require it, and provide for their 
support. 

4. The Society gives to the government the gov- 
ernor's house, and public offices, forts and muni- 
tions of war and the warehouse belonging to the 
Society. All property not ceded by the articles to 
be reserved and disposed of by the Society at its 
discretion. 

5. Future emigrants to have the same privileges 
as the present ones. 

6. A merger by the present Society in a different 
one not to affect rights under the agreement. 

7. The agreement to be modified by mutual con- 

/ 

sent; and, to go into effect on being ratified by 
the people of Maryland in Liberia. 

With the execution of this agreement and its 
ratification by the people which followed in due 
course, the work of the Maryland State Coloniza- 
tion Society, although still incomplete as far as it 
related to the emigration from the State, came to 
an end, by the establishment of a free and inde- 
pendent nation, a member of the family of nations 
on the west coast of Africa, to which emancipated 
slaves or free colored people from Maryland might 
go, either at their own expense or with means still 
furnished by the State. 






80 

, To facilitate their earlier progress, by aiding the 
authorities of the new government to pay the cost 
of their civil list, the State Society contributed, 

*/ 

in the beginning, under a separate agreement, the 
particulars of which would have no interest now. 

All that has thus far been described was within 
the personal knowledge of the writer, either as 
corresponding secretary of the State Society, up to 
1837, or as its president, up to 1853, when he 
became president of the national institution; and 
as has been already suggested, it is this personal 
knowledge, which, at all events, facilitates the 
understanding of recorded proceedings, that has 
made it seem to be the duty of the writer to nar- 
rate a history, which, having no place in the his- 
tory of the State up to this time, might otherwise 
be lost. What took place after 1853 was under 
the wise and admirable administration of the late 
Mr. Charles Howard ; a noble gentleman, an up- 
right Christian man, whose correspondence and 
reports in the records of the State Society afford 
the amplest evidence of the worth and ability of 
the president ; and yet both Mr. Howard and his 
predecessor would have been comparatively feeble 
in the management of the affairs of the Society in 
Africa, and its business transactions in America, 
had not both enjoyed the benefit of the services of 
Dr. James Hall, the founder of the colony after he 

' / 



81 

had vindicated the suggestion of its site, and after 
1841, the general a^ent and manager of the 

C-? ^-J *^ 

Society. 

On the 29th May, 1854, an election of Governor 
of "the State of Marvland in Liberia," as it was 

/ 

now called under the popular constitution, was 
held, and William A Prout was elected Governor, 
and William S. Drayton Lieutenant Governor ; 
Senators, Representatives, a High Sheriff and a 
Coroner were elected at the same time, and 
Thomas Mason was appointed Secretary of State. 
On the 8th June, 1854, the Governor was inaugu- 
rated, and Dr. Samuel F. M'Gill, the acting Gov- 
ernor appointed by the State Society, and its agent, 
administered to him the oath of office, and relin- 
quished the government into his hands. 

On the 9th Governor Prout was presented to the 
native kings and headmen ; the change that had 
taken place was explained and " dashes ' : were 
given proportionate to the occasion. " Le Roi est 
mort, vive le Roi" 

The independence of the State of Maryland in 
Liberia did not by any means terminate its rela- 
tions to the State Society. The State's appropria- 
tion was not exhausted, and emigrants were still 
sent from Maryland. The business in the way of 






82 

trade, that had contributed so largely to the means 
of the State Society still continued. The legisla- 
tive functions of the Board of Managers had come 
to an end ; that was all. Hereafter it could only 
advise. The infant had attained its majority, and 
the guardian's right to command had ceased. 

While reference is made here to the State's 
appropriation, it would be a great mistake to sup- 
pose that the State Society had been altogether 
dependent upon the $10.000 per annum in accom- 
plishing the results that have been here described. 
A balance sheet made up to December 31, 1857, 
for example, showed a credit to profit and loss of 
$139,972. 31, over and above collections, amount- 
ing, at that date to $45,385.74 ; and, in all the 
reports of the commissioners of the .State fund 
under the Act of 1831, care is taken to state that 
the contributions of the State Society to the gen- 
eral object had enabled the commissioners to 
devote the whole of the State's appropriations to 
the transportation of emigrants and to providing 
for their reception in Africa, all the expenses of 
the government there, and of the Society in 
America, being otherwise provided for. 

Governor Prout died during his term of office, 
and Lieutenant Governor B. S. Dravton took his 

V 

place. It was under his administration that the 



83 

native war began which was the immediate cause 
of the absorption of the new State into the older 
one of Liberia proper. Without the cautious and 
sagacious and patient temper of his predecessors, 
Governor Drayton's course has been said to have 
brought on a conflict resulting in many deaths on 
both sides, which made it necessary to apply to 
the authorities at Monrovia for assistance. It so 
happened, most remarkably, that when the appli- 
cation came, Dr. Hall happened to be at Monrovia 
in the Marv Caroline Stevens x on a visit to Africa. 

V 

With his usual energy and with means belonging 
to the State Society at command, he at once sup- 
plied what was wanting to equip 115 uniformed 
troops that he carried in the Stevens to Cape 
Palmas, where his influence, that had not yet died 
out, backed by military force, soon produced peace, 
and a treaty was concluded with the natives on 
equitable terms. 

1 The Mary Caroline Stevens was built in Baltimore for the American 
Colonization Society. Mr. John (T Stevens, of Talbot County, Maryland, 
had made the munificent donation of $37,000 to be appropriated to the 
building of a vessel to be held in trust for colonization purposes. It was 
first proposed by Mr. Stevens that the Maryland State Society should 
become the recipient of his bounty, and be the beneficiary owners of the 
vessel; but he was advised that the State Society would not be justified in 
keeping such a ship constantly employed; the title of the vessel was 
accordingly vested in three officers of the American Colonization Society, 
to be held in trust for it; while, by stipulations with the State Society, the 
latter secured the right to transport emigrants by her. She sailed on her 
first voyage at the close of November, 1856. This vessel continued in the 
trade for six years, when she was sold and replaced by the Golconda, of 
greater capacity. 







84 

Prior to this war, the question of annexation to 
Liberia proper had been mooted among the citi- 
zens. The war and the value of the assistance 
rendered from Monrovia settled it ; and it was not 
long before negotiations were begun which ended 
in the absorption of the territory, that had been 
acquired from time to time by the State Society, 
into the Republic of Liberia, as Maryland County. 1 

In 1858, the Legislature continued the appro- 
priation for colonization purposes under the Act of 
1831 for five years, reducing the amount however 
to $5,000 annually ; and there had been three pay- 
ments at this rate when the late Civil War broke 
out. The whole question of slavery then assumed 
a new aspect ; and the commissioners of the State 
fund, under the belief that the Act of 18-58 had 
been abrogated virtually by the course of events, 
made no requisition for the last two payments. 

Ceasing to have any peculiar interest in the 
colony at Cape Pal mas when the new State of 
Maryland in Liberia ceased to exist, the activity 
of the State Society died out ; and realizing after 
a negotiation with the American Colonization 

O 

Society the sum of $6,000 out of a loan to it when 
the Mary Caroline Stevens was on the stocks, the 

1 For the acquisitions of the State Society, see Appendix. 



State Society invested it in Pittsburgh and Con- 

*/ 

nellsville 7 per cent, railroad bonds, which are 
held bv Dr. James Hall, trustee for the benefit of 

i 

the ''Hall School' at Cape Palmas; and the 
interest on which is regularly collected by the 

V V 

Liberian authorities, and appropriated to the 
salary of $300 to the teacher, and the other 
expenses of the school. 

The organization of the State Society still con- 

*/ 

tinues, but it is only in connection with this 
trust. 

Here, the episode of the State of Maryland's 
action in connection with African colonization, and 
of the sovereignty which a Society acting under its 

I V 

auspices exercised for twenty years in Africa, 
mio-ht end ; but it may not be uninteresting to 

f 

describe the appearance of things at Cape Palmas 
when the government there passed into the hands 
of the successors of the State Society, as well as to 
say a few words in regard to the collateral advan- 
tages which the chief city of the State derived from 
the operations of the Society during its active 
existence. 



The extent of improvements at Cape Palmas 
soon after Dr. Hall had taken possession have 
already been described. A word more in regard 
to it at the date of independence. 
12 



86 



In the town of Harper, on the Cape itself, 
besides the Government House, which had been 
largely added to and improved, there was a stone 
light-house, whose lantern, visible twenty miles at 
sea, had been imported by the colonists from Eng- 
land. Hard by, were the Episcopal Orphan Asy- 
lum and St. Mark's Hospital, the former a frame 
building, three stories high, a conspicuous land- 
mark; the latter a substantial stone structure. 
Between these and the Government House were a 
number of private residences ; and below the Cape 
on the river shore, were four stone warehouses and 
a wharf of the same material. The native village 
of King Freeman still occupied its old position on 
the brow of the Cape, inland. Standing here, over- 
looking the scene of Popo's rescue, the eye followed 
the Maryland avenue extending towards the 

> 

interior, some five miles, to Mount Tubman and its 
stockade fort. On either side of this were farm-lots 
of the colonists. The avenue, which was a well- 
bridged and graded road, kept cleared by constant 
travel, passed by the Baptist Mission and the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Mission stations, the public farm 
and jail. In the village of Latrobe, at the seaward 
end of the avenue, were St. Mark's Episcopal 
church, with its adjoining brick school-house, the 
Methodist church, the Mission house, and a fine 
two-story stone school-house, together with the site 
of the Congregational Mission, so pleasantly de- 



87 



scribed by Mrs. Wilson in the letter already quoted. 
The houses in the village were comfortable dwell- 
ings, with gardens in front. Beyond the village was 
Sheppard lake, of which a glimpse was had with a 
background of heavy tropical forest, from the luxu- 
riant verdure of which the eve wandered to the 

v 

ocean, with its waves breaking upon the narrow 
beach that separated it from the lake. From King 
Freeman's town, in another direction, Hoffman 
river was seen, with the receptacle for new emi- 
grants and the public farm upon its banks. Add 
to this the comfortable dwellings of the colonists 

*_? 

scattered here and there throughout the settlement, 
and lovely as the spot was described to be in its 
earlier aspect, it had lost none of its beauty when 
civilization had set its mark upon it. 

The original territorv had been greatlv enlarged, 

t/ / 

and at the date of independence reached from the 
river Sesters, on the windward, to the river San 
Pedro, on the leeward coast, and extended, after 
annexation, the leeward boundary of Liberia to 
the last-named river. 

With regard, now, to the value to Baltimore com- 
mercially of the operations of the Maryland State 
Colonization Societv, directlv and indirectlv, during 

tf ' / V * 

the thirty years of its active existence, as well 
after as before the colony became independent. 



88 

During this time, shipments from Baltimore 
required for the use of the colony or' for the trade 
connected with it, amounted to upwards of one mil- 
lion dollars; to which are to be added shipments for 
the American Colonization Society equal to half a 
million more ; a business that ceased altogether 
when it was no longer dune in Baltimore, but 
went to New York and Norfolk, which had con- 
trolled it prior to 1834. At the same time, there 
were built in Baltimore, for and under the aus- 
pices of the State Society, eight vessels costing 
$113,000, and bought for it vessels costing $22,000, 
in all $135,000 ; and in addition to this eighteen 
vessels were chartered. After 1852, nearly double 
that number were chartered and sailed from Bal- 
timore on account of the American Colonization 
Society. Estimating the charter parties at only 
$3,000 each for the above eighteen, and $54,000 
is to be added to the cost of the vessels built and 
bought by the State Society ; in a word, taking 
into consideration the money spent for labor, ma- 
terials and merchandise in Baltimore after the 
passage of the Act of 1831, the amount cannot 
have been less than two million dollars, all on 
account of, or in connection with the State Society. 
To this should be added sailing expenses of the 
Mary Caroline Stevens * for six years at $1.000 per 

'The figures in the above statement were furnished by Dr. Hall, and are 
taken from the books of the State Society. 



89 

month, ,$ 72,000, and of the Liberia Packet, six 
years at $700 per month, say 50,000, in all, 
$122,000, without calculating interest on the cost of 
the vessels, all distributed in Baltimore. Taking 

C 7 

all this into consideration, the importance of the 
State Society in a commercial point of view was not 
to be disregarded. 1 



After the absorption of the " State of Maryland 
in Liberia " into Liberia proper, its memory faded 
until the scant notice in the history of our State, 
already referred to, seems to have been regarded as 
all sufficient in this connection. Vessels came and 
went by Cape Palmas, and availed themselves of 
the lio-ht-house built there bv the colonists, in 

O i/ 

utter ignorance of the circumstances attending its 
existence. In the meanwhile, however, a change 
in the public mind in regard to Africa had arisen. 
The necessity for new markets for the ever accu- 
mulating over production of manufacturing civi- 
lization had drawn the attention of both Europe 

'The vessels built, and their cost, are as follows: Ship Mary Caroline 
Stevens, $46,000; Barque Liberia Packet, $20,000; Barque Shirly, 
$12,000; Brig P.almas, $12,000; Schooners President Benson, George R. 
McGill, Moses .Sheppard, 6,000 each; James Hall, $0,000. Vessels 
bought: Morgan Dix. $6,000; Ralph Cross, $8,000. The vessels chartered 
were: 1831, the Orion; 1832, Lafayette; 1833, Ann; 1834, Sarah and 
Prise-ilia, Bourne; 183o, Harmony, Fortune; 1830, Financier, Niobe; 1837, 
Baltimore, Niobe, second voyage ; 1838, Columbia, Oberon ; 1839, Boxer ; 
1840, Chipola; 1842, Globe; 1843, Latrobe; 184-3, Kent. 



90 



and America to the comparatively virgin field, in 
this respect, that Africa might afford ; and when 
the explorations of Livingstone and Stanley had 
thrown light upon it, the European nations, almost 
without exception, under the lead of the King of 
the Belgians, at once sought to make it available. 

O O 

The result was the formation of the International 
Association, that has since, with the cooperation of 
the late Berlin conference, provided for the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of the Free State of the 
Congo. The preliminary proceeding here, was to 
repeat what the Maryland State Colonization had 
shown to be practicable treaties with the native 
kings who, on both banks of the Congo, respec- 
tively, transferred by treaty to the new State, 
rights and privileges similar to those that King 
Freeman and his head men gave to the State 
Society in February, 1834; and the experience 
of both the old and the new settlements in Liberia 
has been again and again referred to, as obviating 

the necessitv of resorting to the old writers on 

/ 

international law to justify the steps taken or 
about to be taken, to introduce colonization and its 
attendant blessings into the innermost recesses of 
the Dark Continent. On one occasion, when the 
question of the recognition by treaty of the flag of 
the Free State by the United States was before the 
Senate, an opportunity was afforded, at the resi- 
dence of the Honorable Henry S. Sanford, acting 



91 



for the International Association, to tell the story 
of the settlement at Cape Palmas to exhume, as 
it were, an incident which none present had ever 
heard of. On this occasion it was evident that 
an interest was excited which it is not unreasonable 
to suppose may have affected the senators and 
representatives who were present in connection 
with their subsequent action upon the subject. At 
any rate, it was pleasant to find that, after thirty- 
odd vears of forgetfulness. what Marvland had 

V ^ 

done was both appreciated and admired; and it 
was this which has, perhaps, quickened the long 
deferred intention of preserving, while it might 
still be done, the memory of a good work of the 
State of Marvland. 






APPENDIX 



EXTRACT 

FROM THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY, HELD JANUARY 19, 1828, IN THE 

HALL OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

At 7 o'clock, the chair was taken by the Hon. Henry Clay, one 
of the vice-presidents of the Society. Fifteen auxiliary Societies 
were represented, the delegates from the State Society of Mary- 
land being Charles C. Harper and John H. B. Latrobe. 

Among other proceedings, the following resolution was offered 
by Mr. Latrobe : 

"Resolved, That the Board of Managers be directed to ascertain 
in the course of the coming year, if possible, the practicability of 
obtaining territory for colonial settlements at Cape Palmas, and 
the Island of Bulama, on the south-west coast of Africa." 

In support of this resolution, Mr. Latrobe said : " An inspection 
of the map of Africa will satisfy you, Mr. Chairman, of the 
importance of these two points with reference to the future opera- 
tions of the Society: and their commercial advantages lx-ing 
great, an early attempt to secure them may perhaps prevent their 
falling into other hands and enable the Society to use them when 
the time shall have arrived at which they may be used with 
advantage 

"Cape Palmas is at that part of Africa where the coast, after pur- 
suing a course due east and west from the Bight of Biafra, 
trends in nearly a north-west direction, and passing by Liberia, 
continues in an almost uninterrupted line to Cape Roxo. The 
13 93 



94 

Island of Bulama, in the mouth of the Rio Grande, is near the 
other extremity of the south-west coast, within a short run from 
the Cape de Verdes, and one of the points of the coast most easily 
made by vessels from this country. 

" By possessing Cape Palmas, we would hold the commercial key 
of the south coast of Africa, and the countries immediately in the 
interior, down as far east as the Bight of Biafra ; and a colony 
there would, in a few years, become a great depot for all the 
articles of foreign produce and manufactures which would be 
required by inhabitants of the nations eastward of the settlement. 
This will be the effect of a physical cause, which is certain and 
unchanging in its operations. The trade winds, pursuing the 
general outline of the African coast, render a return northward 
from the eastward of Cape Palmas, along the coast, extremely 
difficult at all seasons of the year, and more particularly so in the 
rainy season, when the difficulty of taking observations, and the 
numerous and varying currents prevent vessels from knowing 
their exact situation, and expose them to constant danger of ship- 
wreck. From Cape Palmas, or any point to the northward of it, 
it is comparatively easy to return to the Cape de Verdes, and so 
home at all times ; but Cape Palmas once passed, the danger and 
difficulty commence, and disastrous shipwreck or a shattered 
vessel is too often the consequence of a return voyage from a 
point beyond it. Were a settlement made at Cape Palmas it 
would, like Monrovia, soon become the resort of the surrounding 
nations, and merchants would prefer leaving their goods at such 
a market, to running the risks of proceeding further eastward, 
even with the hopes of enhanced profits. Paths would first be 
made, highways would follow, until the uncivilized nations of the 
Ivory coast and Gold coast, passing by the feeble settlements of Cape 
Coast and Elmina, would rtsort to meet civilization at the nearest 
point of safe approach the Americo-African city at Cape 
Palmas. A great and prosperous trade would be the consequence ; 
and the facilities of gain would soon till the new settlement with 



95 

industrious inhabitants. Beside the commercial advantages ot 
Cape Palmar, its road and anchorage are said to be the best 
between Monfcerrado (Mesurada) and tlie Volta ; and the sur- 
rounding country is rolling and fertile, intersected with numerous 
small streams lit for the motion of mills. Being the southern 
extremity of the south-west coast, it will form also a natural boun- 
dary to that empire which, we all hope, will one day arise in 
Africa." ' 



AFRICAN DEEDS, 

TO THE 
SXA.XK COLOISTIZ A.TIO>T SOCIETY. 






Deed No. i. 

FROM KING FREEMAN AND KING WILL, OF CAPE PALMAS. 
Executed the 14th February, 1834. 

Know all men by these presents, that for considerations here- 
inafter mentioned, we, King Freeman, alias Parmah, of Cape 
Palmas, king Will, alias Weah Boleo, of Grahway, and King Joe 
Holland, alias Baphro, of Grand Cavally, have granted and 
sold, and do by these presents, grant and sell to the Maryland 
State Colonization Society, of Maryland, in the United States of 
North America, the following tract of laud of which we are law- 

1 It is amusing in these days to see the calmness with which the south- 
west coast of Africa was thus appropriated ; especially in the light of what 
the civilized world is now doing to obtain foothold everywhere or any- 
where on the continent, coast or inland. But the fact is, that 57 years ago, so 
little attention was paid to Africa, so little was known about it, that it was 
a fair field for all sorts of speculations. Those of the speech of the Marv- 
laml delegate had this value practically ; that they caused, as detailed, 
the intelligent examination which led to the establishment of Maryland 
in Liberia which affords the only excuse for their mention here. 



96 

fully seized at this time by right of possession and descent, viz. : 
Commencing on the sea beach, about three miles to the north-west 
of Cape Palruas, at a cocoa-nut tree, known as the large cocoa- 
nut, separating this territory from that of the king of Rock 
Town, thence running in about an east north-east direction, one 
day's journey, until it shall reach the territory of Kava, king of 
the interior ; from thence running east south-east, six hours walk, 
until it shall reach the town of King Tom on the Cavally river ; 
from thence down the Cavally river to its mouth ; then running 
along the beach, passing the town of Cavally ; Grahway and Cape 
Palmas to the point at starting, viz. : the large cocoa-nut tree ; 
including all the rivers, bays, creeks, anchorages, timber and 
mines, on the same, excepting as follows : A tract of land deeded, 
and given sometime since, by the above named King Will, alias 
Weah Boleo, of Grahway, to King Yellow Will, of little Cavally. 
Also excepting so much of the said territory as is now under cul- 
tivation by the inhabitants thereof, or such places as are occupied 
by us or our dependents, as towns and villages ; reserving also the 
right of passing and repassing up and down all rivers and creeks, 
and of traversing all sections of the country not inhabited by the 
colonists of the said Society ; the said Society to have, and to hold 
the same for its own special benefit, and behoof forever ; and we 
do agree to warrant and defend the same against the claims of all 
persons whatever; and it, the said Society shall have power by its 
factors or agents to exercise all authority in the above named ter- 
ritory, reserving to ourselves and our descendants the right of 
governing and setting all palavers among our own people so long 
as we shall see fit to occupy any part of said territory. And we 
do hereby acknowledge ourselves as members of the Colony of 
Maryland in Liberia, so far as to unite in common defence in 
case of war or foreign aggresssion. 

We do also acknowledge the receipt of the following articles of 
Merchandise of James Hall, Esquire, agent of the said Society 
and governor of said territory, as a full and ample compensa- 
tion therefor, viz. : 4 Cases of Muskets, 20 kegs Powder, 110 



97 

pieces of Cloth, 10 Neptunes, 10 Brass Kettles, 20 Hat?, 100 
Cutlasses, 200 Ibs. Beads, 1,500 Ibs. Iron Pots, (i doz. looking 
Glasses, 4 framed ditto, 24 Iron bars, 100 trade knives, 100 wash 
basins, 3 Hotheads tobacco, 10 Boxes pipes, 2 kegs flints, 6 
Dozen Locks, 24 Decanters, 50 Tumblers, 50 Wine Glasses, 24 
stone Jugs, 10 Demijohns, 3 suits of Clothes, 3 cocked hats, 25 
Razors in Cases, 50 Pitchers, 50 mugs, 50 Bowls, 3 pr. Brass 
barrelled Pistols, 1,000 Fish Hooks, 50 pr. Scissors, 50 Spanish 
Dollars. And I, the said Hall, do, in the name of the said 
Society, guaranty to the said kings and their dependents the 
above reserved rights, and further, that neither themselves nor 
property shall be trespassed upon or molested in unv manner 
whatever, and 'no lands under cultivation, or towns or villages 
shall be taken from them, except by special contract ; paying the 
desired remuneration therefor. And I do further agree, for and 
in the name of the said society ; that free schools shall be estab- 
lished for the benefit of the children in each of the following 
towns, in one year from the date hereof, viz. : One at Cape Pal- 
mas, one at Garroway, and one at Grand Cavally. 

This instrument, with a duplicate thereof, is executed at Cape 
Palmas, this fourteenth day of February, One Thousand, Eight 
Hundred and Thirty-four. 

KING FREEMAN, alias PARMAH, 

Of Cape Palmar. 
KING JOE HOLLAND, alias BAPHRO, 

Of Grand Cavally. 
KING WILL, alias WEAH BOLIO, 

King of Grahaway. 
JAMES HALL, Agent, 

Maryland State Colonization Society. 

Signed, sealed, and one copy delivered to King Freeman, and 
one to James Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization 
Society, in presence of JAS. M. THOMPSON and GEO. R. 
McGlLL. 



98 



SUPPLEMENT AFFIXED TO THE ABOVE DEED OF TERRI- 
TORY FROM THE KINGS OF CAPE PALMAS, 
GRAIIWAY AND GRAND CAVALLY. 

We, whose names are hereunto affixed, head men of Cape 
Palmas, Grahway, and Cavally, ratify and confirm the foregoing 

contract made by our with James Hall, Agent of the 

Maryland State Colonization Society, this thirteenth day of 
February, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-four. 

U-.vn-YoH, Governor of Cape Palmas. 
JUMBO, Soldier Kiny. 
GEOH, Gent, und headman. 

KIBROH, Governor of Grahwai/ biy town. 

i 

GELAH, Kiiiy's mate and Governor of Half Cavally. 
SEEK, Pioneer of the Expedition. 
BALLY, King's mouth or interpreter. 
NEAH, Palaver-house man. 
OURAB, 
DEWEY, 
Attest : 
JAMES M. THOMPSON. 

GEORGE K. McGlLL. 

CONFIRMATION BY THE HEADMEN OF GRAND CAVALLY. 

Grand Carally, Wf*t Africa, May 20, 1834. 
We, the undersigned headmen of Grand Cavally, do, by these 
presents, notify and confirm the contract made by our king, Joe 

Holland, alia* Baphro, in with Will, alias Boleo, king of 

Grahway, and Freeman, alias Pah Xeeuiah, king of Cape Palmas, 
on one part, and James Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Colo- 
nixation Society, on the other part, deeding and conveying all 
the territory now possessed or hnlden by us, to the said Society, 
reserving so much thereof as is now under cultivation, or is 
occupied by us as towns and villages, agreeable to the deed 



99 



executed by the above-named kings at Cape Palmas, on the thir- 
teenth day of February, One Thousand Eight Hundred and 

Thirty-four. 

BARVOW, Governor. of Cavally. 

TWEADAH, Governor ATote. 

TWEABEY, Kinys Adjutant. 

KOLEH, Soldier King. 

NEAHBEY, Head trade man for River Cavally. 

JULEH, Kiny'x Mouth. 
Attest : 

AXTHOXY WOOD. 



Deed No. 2. 
FROM KING BARRAH KEABY, OF BULYEMAH. 

Executed the 21 st October, 1835. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Barrah Keaby, the 

true and lawful king of the country, called Bulyemah, and of 

the Lsabreh people inhabiting said Country, do, by these 

presents, grant, deed and convey unto James Hall, as Agent of 

the Maryland State Colonization Society, and through and by 

him, to said Society, the territory now under my authority, 

called Bulyemah, and bounded as follows, viz. : beginning at a 

large rock on the beach, about six miles East of the mouth of the 

river Cavally, the same being the natural bounding line between 

Robookah and Labou ; thence running in a northerly direction 

(point of compass not known), one and a half days journey, or 

about fifty miles to the country, called Labou, governed by King 

Yootoo, thence running in a westerly direction to the Cavally 

river, at the mouth of Bohraurn creek, the natural boundary 

line between the Nigahpoh Yeabreh people, thence down the 

Cavally river, including both sides on the west side to a town 

belonging to the Half Cavally, or Boureh people called Deamah 

on the east side, extending to the river mouth, thence along the 



100 

sea beach, about six miles to the rock at point of starting, to have 
and to hold the same, in common with my own people, and to 
occupy any part thereof not now in actual use as a town, village 
or farm, or Devil plot, with all privileges and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging forever. And it is further agreed by the said 
parties that the inhabitants of the above-named country and the 
king thereof, and the American citizens of Maryland in Liberia 
shall unite their forces in defence of their common country, and 
of the territory already belonging to the Maryland Colonization 
Society in Africa, to which this is now annexed. And it is 
further agreed that all palaver occurring between any two kings 
residing in Maryland in Liberia, or between the subjects of any 
two kings, shall be set by the American governor of the terri- 
tory. And it is further agreed on part of the said King Keaby, 
that no foreigner or person not authorized by the Maryland State 
Colonization Society, shall reside in or make trade in any part of 
said territory, other than that made with canoes without the bar 
of the river Cavally. And further, that there shall never be in 
either party any obstruction to the free passage up and down, 
and navigation of the Cavally river with any craft whatsoever. 
The considerations of the above deed are as follows, viz. : Find, 
The above named privileges of mutual defence ; Secondly, The 
advantages accruing from trading parts being established in the 
same territory, by and thro' the agent of the Maryland State 
Colonization Society ; Thirdly, The advantages of the schools, 
which the children of the native inhabitants shall enjoy in com- 
mon with the American children ; Fourthly, The general benefit 
which the said Keaby, executor hereof, foresees will result to his 
country, and the inhabitants thereof from intercourse with the 
American people ; Fifthly, Such presents or dashes as he may 
hope to receive from the colonial agent for so munificent a 
donation. 

Signed : JAMES HALL, Agt. J/rf. St. Col. Soc. 

KEABY KING, i SI-AL. \ 






101 



.Signed, sealed and delivered at Robookah, this sixteenth day 
of October, Eighteen Hundred and Thirty-five, in presence of 
NATHAN* LEE and BAPHKO KING. 



CONFIRMATION BY THE HEADMEN OF ROBOOKAH OF 
THE FOREGOING DEED. 

Robookah, October 10, 1835. 

We, Crah, Jeammah, Keikeh, Evey, Jinibly, Headmen for 
Robookah, do hereby, in presence of the king and each other, 
ratify and confirm the foregoing contract of King Barrah Keaby 
with James Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization 
Society, and bind ourselves and adherents to observe the same. 

Signed : CRAH, JEAMMAH, KERKEH, 

EREH, JIMBLY. 

BEX KROKO, Headman and King's son, 
KAJEH, Brother for river king. 
BLAGNES, Headman far small toivn. 
KRABEH. 

Attest : 

NATHAN LEE. 



CONFIRMATION BY THE KTNQ AND HEADMEN OF PLORAH, 
&c., TO THE FOREGOING DEED. 

Pforah, October 21<rf, 1835. 



I, Tourah, liege king to Barrah Keaby, over the country called 
Bulyemah, and resident of Plorah, and we, whose names are 
hereunto affixed, headmen of said country, do hereby, of our own 
free will and accord, ratify and confirm the foregoing contract 
made between the said Barrah Keaby on the one part, and James 
Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, on the 
other part, and do bind ourselves, our dependents and successors 

14 










102 

to observe the same. In witness whereof, we do hereunto set our 
hands and affix our seals. 

Signed : KING TOUR EH, 

QUEDO WEAK, Grand deiil king. 
MANIE, King Toureh's mate. 
HOTOO, Soldier King of Floor ah. 

LEJAMMAII, Headman of Neatoh. 

J 

No PLOH, Gentleman of Plorah and Orator. 

TOJEH, Headman of Bohoor. 

WARRAH, Headman of Letoo. 

CR<;H, Headman of Denah. 

NEAMMAH, Headman of the Wehnaiveh. 

SEAH, Second to Lejammeh. 
Attest : 

NATHAN LEE, 
LEAMMAH, 
NEH. 

CONFIRMATION BY THE KING AND HEADMEN OF HAIDEE 

TO THE FOREGOING. 

Haidee, October 23rd, 1835. 

I, king Gun-o-weh, Liege king to Barrah Keaby, of the Bulye- 
mah country, and we whose names are hereunto affixed, headmen 
of said country, do hereby of our own free will and accord, ratify 
and confirm the foregoing contract made between the said Barrah 
Keaby and James Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Coloniza- 
tion Society, and do bind ourselves, our dependents and successors 
to observe the same. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and affixed 
our seals, 

Signed : Kixo GUN-O-WEH. 

JUO-EY, King's mate. 
JAMMAH, Governor of Haidee. 



Attest : 
NATHAN LEE. 



103 

KEABEAH, Half Governor. 
PANAGEE-QUEEAH, second to Keabeah. 
DADGA, Orator. 
EDAH, Soldier King. 



Deed No. 3. 

FROM KING NEAH WEAK, OF BOWREH. 
Executed the 25th November, 1835. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Neah "NVeah, King of 
Boureh and Half Cavally, and we whose names are hereunto 
affixed, headmen of said Boureh, do hereby grant, deed and con- 
vey unto James Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization 
Society, and by and through him to said Society, the territory 
now under our jurisdiction called Boureh, and bounded as fol- 
lows, viz. : Beginning at a point on the sand beach, about one 
mile west of Cavally Point, the same being the boundary line 
between Cavally and Grahway, thence running in a north- 
easterly direction to the Cavally River, thence on the west 
side of the Cavally River to the territory occupied by Cragh, 
headman of Watta, thence in a line running nearly south-west 
to the sea beach, about four miles west of the mouth of the 
Cavally river, thence west along the sea beach, about four miles 
to the point of starting, including the whole territory possessed 
by the Bowreh people east of Cape Palmas, excepting so much 
thereof as is at present occupied as town, farm lots or burying 
ground. And it is hereby agreed by said parties that the same 
*hall be and is hereby annexed to, and becomes a part of the 
territory now belonging to the Maryland State Colonization 
Society, and the inhabitants of the same shall unite with the 
American colonists in defence of this, their common country. 
Aud it is further agreed that all palavers arising between the 



104 



above mimed king of Bowreh, or any of his subjects, and any 
other king or the subjects of another king belonging to the terri- 
tory of Maryland in Liberia, shall be set by the Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society, or American Governor of 
the Colony. And it is further agreed that all inhabitants of 
Liberia, Americans or natives, of what tribe soever, shall have 
the free right of passing and repassing from one part of said ter- 
ritory to the other without injury or molestation. And it is 
further agreed that no foreigner shall be permitted to reside in or 
make trade in any part of the territory now ceded to the Mary- 
land State Colonization Society (always excepting the canoe trade 
with foreign vessels), without a special permit from the American 
Governor. 

The considerations for the above deed are as follows : 

Firt. The above-named privileges for mutual defence. 

Secondly. The advantages arising from having free access to all 
trading parts which shall be established in Man-land in Liberia. 

Thirdly. The advantages of schools, which the children of 
native parents shall enjoy in common with the American children. 

Fourth. The general benefit which will result to the native 
inhabitants from free intercourse with the American colonists. 

Fifth. Such presents as the colonial agent may see fit to make 
for so valuable an acquisition of territory. 

JAMES HALL, A. M. S. C. S., 

his 

KING XEH, or WEAH, x mark 
Signed, sealed and delivered at Half Cavallv, this twenty-fifth 

his" 

day of November, 1835, in presence of NEH, X mark. 

EDDA HAMEH, alia* JIM WILSON, Kiny's Mate. 
XORVOO, Headman of Half Cavalfy. 
CRAHBI-X, He<id Gentleman of Half Cacally. 
EDDAH QUAN, Headman of Xeatoh. 
X, Head Smith. 




105 

DOBBO, Governor of Enbbo. 
WAH, >Soldier King. 

CAIREH, TOBBO, NEH, BLUBB, GEO, HOVRO. 
CROGH, NEAHMAH, BOB QUEAB, CRAB, LEAH. 
LAH-NA-TOO, NAIMBOO, JABBOO. 
HILLY-BOO-WEU, Muss NEANKO, or JIM LIVER- 
POOL, Hedd Trademen. 



DABWEH. 



CONFIRMATION BY THE HEADMEN OF GRAND < AVALLY. 

Grand Caralhj, We*t Africa, Mni/ 'JO, 1-S:>4. 

We, the undersigned Headmen of Grand Cavally, do, by these 
presents, ratify and confirm the contract made by our king, Joe 
Holland, alias Baphro, in conjunction with Will, alia* Bolio, king 
of Grahway, and Freeman, alias Pah Neahmah, king of Cape 
Palmas, on the one part, and James Hall, Agent of the Maryland 
State Colonization Society on the other part, deeding and convey- 
ing all the territory now possessed or holden by us to the said 
Society, reserving so much thereof as is now under cultivation, or 
ig occupied by us as towns and villages, agreeable to the deed 
executed by the above-named kings at Cape Palmas, on the thir- 
teenth day of February, One Thousand Eight Hundred and 
Thirty -four. 

BARWON, Governor of Cavally. 

TWEADAH, Governor Mate. 

TWAABEY, Kiny>s Adjutant. 

KALAH, Soldier King. 

NE-AH-BEY, Head trademan for River Cavally. 

JULEH, Kings Month. 

Attest : 

ANTHONY WOOD. 



106 



SUPPLEMENT AFFIXED TO THE DEED OF TERRITORY FROM 

THE KINGS OF CAPE PALMAS, GRAHWAY, 

AND GRAND CAVALLY. 

We, whose names are hereunto affixed, headmen of Cape 
Palmas, Grahway and Grand Cavally, do ratify and confirm the 
foregoing contract made by our sovereigns with James Hall, 
Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, this thirteenth 
day of February, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty-four. 

U-AH-TOH, Governor of Cape Palmas. 
JUMBO, Soldier King. 
SEAH, Gent. Headman. 
KIBEOH, Governor of Grahway biy town. 
GALAH, king's mate and Governor of Half Grahway. 
SEEH, Pioneer of the Expedition. 
BALLY, King's mouth or Interpreter. 
NEH, Palaver house man. 
ORAH, " 
DEWEY, " " 

Attest : 

JAMES M. THOMPSON, 
GEO. R. McGiLL. 



Deed No. 4. 

FROM KING GRA-KAW OF NEGAPOS. 
Executed the 26th December, 1835. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Gra-kaw, one of the 
kings of Negahpos people (but totally free and independent from 
all the kings of the said Negahpos,) and we, whose names are 
hereunto affixed, Headmen and Governors of these several towns 
belonging to the said Gra-kaw, do hereby deed and 'convey unto 



107 

James Hall, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society of 
Maryland, in the United States of America, all the territory now 
within our jurisdiction, and bounded as follows: South and south- 
west by the territory of the Maryland State Colonization Society ; 
west by the territory of the Gra-kaw, or King Hevas' people ; 
north by King Wah, or Treaboah people ; east by the territory of 
King Xeh, of Denah, and of King Nehero. To have and to hold 
the same, together with all the privileges and appurtenances 
thereof, for all the purposes of agriculture, making roads, erecting 
dwellings, &c., in common with my own people, the present 
occupants, always reserving the part now occupied and tenanted 
by us as towns, villages, or grain fields. And it is hereby agreed 
by the said parties, that the same is hereby annexed to and 
becomes a part of Maryland in Liberia, and the inhabitants 
thereof shall all unite in defence of this their common territory. 
They shall also be equally entitled to the privileges of passing and 
repassing to and from any trading parts established in said terri- 
tory of Man-land in Liberia. The children of native inhabitants 
shall also, in common with those of American parents, enjoy the 
privileges of attending any schools established in the territory. 
The considerations for the above deed of gift are the advantages 
which will accrue to the country from this arrangement, and such 
presents and dashes as the said James Hall shall see fit to make 
for so valuable a donation. 

The foregoing deed, with a duplicate thereof, signed, sealed and 
delivered at Bluroh, this tw T enty-sixth day of December, Eighteen 
Hundred and Thirty-five. 

GRA-KAW, King. 

(\ /> 

JAMES HALL, Am. St. C. S. j SEAL. | 

O O 

TAI, Gov. of Borroh. 

WRAH, Gov. of Louree. 
COOTE, Gov. of Juedo. 
BUNOH, Gov. of Noa. 




108 

SOULEAH, Gov. of Bueh 
BLLYEMAH, Gov. of 
OOREEII, Gov. of Batteh. 
NEAMAH, Gov. of Tuo. 

CAPREH, Gov. of No. 
Witnessed by : 

NEH, Agency's Krooman. 
WARROH, Kiny Fruwansbay. 



Deed No. 5. 

FROM KING NEH OF DENAH. 
Executed the 10</i February, 1836. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Neh, king of a part of 
the Negapo people, dwelling on the Cavally river (including 
Denah), and we, whose names are hereunto affixed, headmen of 
said territory, do hereby grant, deed and convey unto James Hall, 
Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, of Maryland, 
in the United States of America, and by and through him to said 
Society, all that tract of territory now under our jurisdiction 
together with all and every privilege and appurtenances there- 
unto belonging, said territory is bounded as follows : South, by 
the territory occupied by another part of the Negapo people 
under Yeabreh, headman of Nopatea, east, by the Labou people, 

about thirty miles distant, north, by the Kings Enerno and , 

another section of the Negapos, at a distance from Denah of ten 
miles north-west by a section of country under the Negapos 
people under King War, about fifteen miles distant south-west 
and west by the territory of the Maryland State Colonization 
Society purchased by one part of the Negapos tribe under King 
Gra-kaw, containing in all, about 400 square miles. To have 
and to hold the same as a part of and adjoining the Maryland 
State Colonization Society's land, viz. : Maryland in Liberia. 



109 



And it is hereby agreed by the said parties that all of the 
inhabitants thereof shall unite with the inhabitants of Maryland 
ia Liberia for their mutual security and defence. That all pala- 
vers arising between any king of the above-named territory, and 
another king belonging to Maryland in Liberia, or between any 
of his subjects, and the subjects of any other king belonging to 
said State shall be subject to the decision of the Home Agent of 
said Society, or the Governor of the American Colony. Also, 
that all the inhabitants of Maryland in Liberia, either natives or 
Americans, shall have the free right and privilege of passing and 
repassing through any part of said Maryland in Liberia, and 
have free access to all trading parts established in said territory. 
AJso, that the native inhabitants of the country so ceded shall 
enjoy all the rights and privileges of schooling in common with 
the American colonists. The considerations for the above grant 
are the advantages that will result to the country from the 
schools, trading ports, mutual protection, and the many great 
benefits that will accrue from free intercourse with civilized 
people. Also, such satisfactory presents as we at this time 
acknowledge to have received from the Agent of the Maryland 
State Colonization Society. 

Signed, sealed and delivered, with a duplicate hereof, at Harper, 
this 10th February, 1836. 

his 

RHEA X XEH, King of Denah. 

mark 

JAMES HALL, Agent Md. St. Col. Soc. 

WAA-MEH, X Town Orator. 

MA YOU, X Headman of Denah. 

CRAHBLEH, X Gortrnor of Yeabreh. 

TOOMOO, X of Xoah. 

QUO-QUO, X " of Denah. 
In presence of: 
OLIVER HOLMES, JR., and 
JAMES M. THOMPSON. 
15 



110 
Deed No. 6, of Rock Town. 

FROM KING YEAH. 
Executed April list, 1837. 

Know all men by these presents, that I, Gray, the true and 
lawful king of Rock Town, and Frah, Governor of said country 
(sometimes called Cape Palmas), do, by these presents, grant, 
deed and convey unto Jno. B. Kusswurrn, as Agent of the Mary- 
land State Colonization Society, and through and by him to the 
said Society, the territory now under our authority called Rock 
Town (alias Tah), and bounded as follows, viz. : Beginning at 
the Cocoa-nut tree near the beach, the northern boundary of the 
American settlement at Cape Palmas, thence running parallel 
with the seaboard, about six miles, more or less in a northern 
direction to a point called Bleableah-Tawah, which divides it 
from Fish Town. Thence running in a north-east direction 
(point of compass not known), half a day's journey, or about 
sixteen miles to the country called Saurogah, governed by King . 
Warrah, and thence in a south-east direction to the intervening 
line between this territory and the American settlement men- 
tioned above, and from thence to the Cocoa-nut tree above 
mentioned in a south-west direction, to have and to hold the 
same in common with our people, and to occupy any part thereof 
not now in actual use as a town, village or farm with all the 
privileges and appurtenances thereunto belonging forever. 

And it is further agreed by said parties, that the inhabitants of 
the above named country, and the king and governor thereof, 
and the American citizens of Maryland in Liberia shall unite 
their forces in defence of their common country, and of the terri- 
tory already belonging to the Maryland Colonization Society in 
Africa, to which this is now annexed. And it is further agreed 
that all palavers arising between any two kings residing in Mary- 
land in Liberia between the subjects of any two kings shall be set 
by the American Governor of the territory. 



Ill 



And it is further agreed on the part of the said King Gray and 
Governor Traho, that no foreigner or person not authorized by 
the Maryland State Colonization Society shall reside in or make 
trade in any part of said territory, other than that made in canoes 
with vessels in offing. 

And further, that there shall never be, in either party, any 
obstruction to a free passage through their respective territories, 
either by land or water. 

The considerations for the above deed are as follows : 

First. The above named privileges of mutual defence. 

Second. The advantages from trading ports being established 
in said territory, and through the Agent of the Maryland State 
Colonization Society. 

Third. The advantages of schools, which the children of the 
native inhabitants shall enjoy in common with American 
children. 

Fourth. The general benefit which the said King Gray and 
Governor Frah, executors hereof, foresee will result to their 
country, and the inhabitants thereof, from intercourse with 
American colonists. 

Fifth. Such presents or dashes as they may hope to receive 
from the colonial agent for deeding the above-named terri- 
tory. 

And further, it is understood by the contracting parties that 
nothing contained in this deed shall in any way interfere with 
any former deed or conveyance which may have been given to 
the Rev. J. L. Wilson, as Agent of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, for the purpose of establishing 
schools within said territory. 

O O 

JNO. B. RUSSWURM, A. Md. S. C. ft. J ss f 

C \> 

GRAY, King, I * : - I 

O O 

FRAH, Governor, I ss. 






112 



/Signed, sealed and delivered at Rock Town, this twenty-first 
day of April, in the year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight 
Hundred and Thirty-seven. 
In presence of: 
G. R. McGiLL, 
SAMUEL EDEN, 

his 

JACK X WILSON. 

mark. 

Rock To-wn, April 21f, 1837. 

We, Veah, Duah, Xeemah, Jr., Trah and Neemah, Sr., head- 
men for Rock Town, do, hereby in the presence of the King, 
Governor and each other, ratify and confirm the foregoing contract 
of King Gray and Governor Frah with Jno. B. Riirswurm, 
Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, and bind our- 
selves to observe the same. 

his 

VEAH, X 

mark, 
hii 

DUAH, X 

mark, 
his 

NEEMAH, JR., X 

mark, 
his 

TUAH, X 

mark, 
his 

NEEMAH, SR. X 

mark. 

Attest : 

GEORGE R. McGiLL, 
SAMUEL EDEN, 

bis 

TOM X PRINCE. 

mark. 



Deed No. 7, of Bassa. 

FROM KING NIMLEE AND GOVERNOR OF BASSA COUNTRY. 
Executed February 24th, A. D., Itf-ib'. 

Know all men by these presents, that we, King Nimlee and 
Governor Yellow Will, the true and lawful King and Governor 



113 

of Bassa Country, do, by these presents, grant, deed and convey to 
Jno. B. Russwurm, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization 
Society, and through and by him to said Society, the territory 
now under our jurisdiction called Bassa, and bounded as follows : 

Beginning at Bassa river and extending along the beach to , 

east, by the Atlantic ocean ; west, by Labou and Taioh nation of 
Bushmen ; north, by the Taioh 's and other Bush tribes, and south, 
by the Atlantic ocean. 

To have and to hold the same in common with our own people, 
and to occupy any part thereof not now in actual use as a town, 
or farm with all the appurtenances thereunto belonging forever. 

And it is further agreed by said parties that the inhabitants of 
the above-named country, the King and Governor thereof, and 
the American citizens of Maryland in Liberia shall unite their 
forces in defence of their common country and the territory 
already belonging to the Maryland State Colonization Society in 
Africa, to which this is now annexed. 

And it is further agreed that all palavers arising between any 
two kings residents of Maryland in Liberia, or between the sub- 
jects of any two kings shall be set by the American Governor of 
the colony. 

And it is further agreed on the part of the above King Nimlee 
and Governor Yellow Hill, that no foreigner not authorized by 
the Maryland State Colonization Society, or other persons shall 
reside in or make trade in any part of said territory, other than 
that made in canoes with vessels in the offing. 

And further, that there shall never be, in either party, any 
obstructions to a free passage through their respective territories, 
either by land or sea. 

The considerations of the above deed are as follows : 

First. The above-named privileges of mutual defence. 

Second. The advantages accruing from trading posts being 
established in said territory, by and through the Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society. 



114 



Third. The advantages of schools, which the children of 
the native inhabitants shall enjoy in common with American 
children. 

Fourth. The general benefit which the said King Nimlee and 
Governor Yellow Hill, executors hereof, foresee will result to their 
country, and the people thereof, from intercourse with American 
colonists. 

Fifth. Such dashes tvs they may hope to receive from the 
Colonial Agent for deeding said territory. 

Signed, sealed and delivered at Bassa, King George's Town, 
this twenty-fourth day of February, A. D. 1846. 

Jxo. B. RUSSWURM, A. Md. St. 8. 
NIMLEE, King, X 
YELLOW WILL, Gov. 
In presence of: 
TRUMAN, King, X 
YELLOW WILL, X 

D. E. McFARLAND, 

JNO. BANKS. 

We, Pouch, Barren and Brah, Headmen of Bassa, do hereby, 
in the presence of the King and Governor and each other, ratify 
and confirm the foregoing contract with Jno. B. Russwurm, 
A. M. S. C. S., and bind ourselves and adherents to observe the 
same. 

POUCH, X 
BARRAH, X 
BRAH, X 
JEUEII. X 
In presence of: 
TRUMAN, King. 
YELLOW WILL. 




115 
Deed No. 8, of Tahoe. 

FROM KING GEORGE. 
Executed February "24th, 1846. 

I, King George, the true and lawful king of the country of 
Tahoe, do, by these presents, grant, deed, and convey unto John 
B. Russwurm, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, 
and through and by him to said Society, the territory now under 
my authority, called and bounded as follows, viz. : East by the 
Atlantic ocean and river Padro ; west by Grand Berriby and 
Yappo nation of bushxnen ; north by the Europoh nation of bush- 
men ; and south by the Atlantic ocean. 

To have and to hold the same in common with our own people, 
and to occupy any part thereof not now in actual use as a town, 
farm or village, with all the privileges and appurtenances there- 
unto belonging forever. 

And it is further agreed by the said parties that the inhabitants 
of the above-named country and the kings thereof, and American 
citizens of Maryland in Liberia, shall unite their forces in defence 
of their common country and of the territory already belonging to 
the Maryland Colonization Societv in Africa, to which this is now 

/ 

annexed. 

And it is further agreed that all palavers arising between any 
two kings residing in Man-land in Liberia, or between the sub- 
jects of any two kings, shall be set by the American Governor of 
the territory. 

And it is further agreed on the part of the said King George 
that no foreigner or person not authorized by the Maryland State 
Colonization Society shall reside in or make trade in any part of 
said territory other than that made in canoes with vessels in the 
offing. 

And further that there shall never be, in either party, any 
ol)struction to a free passage through their respective territories 
either bv land or water. 



116 

The considerations for the above deed are as follows : 

First. The above-named privileges of mutual defence. 

Second. The advantages accruing from trading posts being 
established in said territory by and through the Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society. 

Third. The advantages of schools, which the children of the 
native inhabitants shall enjoy in common with American 
children. 

Fourth. The general benefit which the said King George, 
executor hereof, foresees will result to their country, and the 
inhabitants thereof, from intercourse with American colonists. 

Fifth. Such presents or dashes as they may hope to receive 
from the Colonial Agent for ceding above territory. 

Signed, sealed and delivered at Town of Bassa (King George's), 
this twenty -fourth day of February, A. D., 1846. 

In presence of: 
J>*o. BANKS, 

D. C. McFARLAND. 

Toifn ofBcusa, February 24th, 1846. 

We, Hugo, Seah and Gerah, headmen of Tahoe, do, hereby in 
the presence of our kings and each other, ratify and confirm the 
preceding contract with Jno. B. Russwurm, Agent of the Mary- 
land State Colonization Society, and bind ourselves and adherents 
to observe them. 

HAGO SEAH, 
GERAH. 
In presence of: 
TRUMAX, King, 
YELLOW WILL. 



117 



Deed No. 8, of Grand Berriby. 

. 

FROM KING DARBO AND KING TOM. 



Executed February 23d, 1846. 

Know all men by these presents, that we, King Darbo and 
King Tom, the true and lawful Kings of Grand Berriby : 

Do by these presents, grant, deed and convey unto Juo. B. 

" 

Russwurm, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, 
and through and by him to said Society, the territory now under 
our authority and bounded as follows, viz : East, by the Atlantic 
ocean ; west, by Half Berriby and Majo najo nation of Bushmen ; 
north, by the Yappo nation of Bushmen, and south, by the 
Atlantic ocean. 

To have and to hold the same in common with our own people, 
and to occupy any part thereof not now in actual use as a town, 
village or farm with all the privileges and appurtenances there- 
unto belonging forever. 

And it is further agreed by said parties that the inhabitants of . 
the above country, and the King and Governor thereof, and 
American citizens of Maryland in Liberia shall unite their forces 
in defence of their common country, and of the territory already 
belonging to the Maryland Colonization Society in Africa, to 
which this is now annexed ; and it is further agreed that all pala- 
vers arising between any two kings residing in Maryland in 
Liberia, or between the subjects of any two kings shall be set by 
the American Governor of the territory. 

And it is further agreed on the part of the said King Darbo 
and King Tom : 

That no foreigner or person not authorized by the Maryland 
State Colonization Society shall reside in or make trade in any 
part of said territory, other than that made in canoes with vessels 
in the offing. 

16 



118 

.And further, that there shall never be, in either party, any 
obstructions to a free passage through their respective territories, 
either by land or water. 

The considerations for the above deed are as follows : 
First. The above-named privileges of mutual defence. 
Second. The advantages accruing from trading posts being 
established in said territory, by and through the Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society. 

Third. The advantages of schools, which the children of the 
native inhabitants shall enjoy in common with the American 
children. 

Fourth. The general benefit which the said King Darbo and 

King Tom, executors hereof, foresee will result to their country, and 

the inhabitants thereof from intercourse with American colonists. 

Fifth. Such presents or dashes as they may hope to receive 

from the Colonial Agent for ceding above-named territory. 

Signed, sealed and delivered at Bassa Town, King George's, this 
twenty -third February, A. D. 1846. 

JNO. B. RUSSWURM, 

Governor Md. Liberia. 
DARBO KING, -f- 

In presence of: TOM KING, + 

D. C. MC-FARLAND, 
JOHN BANKS, 
TRUMAN KING, + 

We, Neemah, Governor, and Crah, headmen of Grand Berriby, 
do, hereby in the presence of our kings and each other, ratify and 
confirm the preceding contract with J. B. Russwurm, Agent of 
the Maryland State Colonization Society, and bind ourselves 

and adherents to observe them. 

XEMAH, Gov. + 

In presence of: CRAH, Headman, -(- 

TRUMAN KING, -f- 
YELLOW WILL. + 



119 
Deed No. 9, of Berriby. 

FROM Ol'RIPPI AND HUGO, GOVERNOR. 
Executed March 13th, 1846. 

Know all men by these presents, that we, Ourippi, alias King 
William, and Hugo, Governor, the true and lawful King and 
Governor of Half Berriby : 

Do, by these presents, grant, deed, and convey unto John B. 
Russwurm, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, 
and through and bv him to said Societv, the territory" now under 

/ V ' * 

our authority, called and bounded as follows, viz. : East by the 
Atlantic ocean ; west by the Mago and Ourappo nations of bush- 
men ; north bv the Hennah nation bushmen, and south by the 

/ 

Atlantic ocean. 

To have and to hold the same in common with our own people, 
and to occupy any part thereof not now in actual use as a town, 
village, farm, with all the privileges and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging, forever. 

And it is further agreed by said parties that the inhabitants of 
the above country, and the King and Governor thereof, and the 
American citizens of Maryland in Liberia, shall unite their forces 
in defence of their common country and of the territory already 
belonging to the Maryland State Colonization Society in Africa : 
to which this is now annexed. 

, And it is further agreed that all palavers arising between any 
two kings residing in Maryland in Liberia, or between the sub- 
jecte of any two kings, shall be set by the American Governor of 
the territory. 

And it is further agreed on the part of the said King and 
Governor, that no foreigner or person not authorized by the 
Maryland State Colonization Society, shall reside in or make 
trade in any part of ."aid territory, other than that made in canoes 
with vessels in the offinjj. 

O 



120 

And further, that there shall never be, in either party, any 
obstruction to a free passage through their respective territories, 
either by land or water. 

The considerations of the above deed are as follows: 

Fir#t. The above-named privileges of mutual defence. 

Second. The advantages accruing from trading posts being 
established in said territory by and through the Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society. 

Third. The advantages of schools, which the children of the 
native inhabitants shall enjoy in common with American children. 

Fourth. The general benefit which the said King and Governor, 
executors hereof, foresee will result to their country and the 
inhabitants thereof, from intercourse with American colonists. 

Fifth. Such presents or dashes as they may hope to receive 
from the Colonial Agent for ceding the above-named territory. 

Signed, sealed and delivered at Cape Palmas, this 13th of 
March, A. D. One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty-six. 

JNO. B. RUSSWURM. 

A. Md. S. C. S. 
WILLIAM, King, -j- 

HUGO, Governor. -f- 
In presence of: 

TRUMAN, King, + 
YELLOW WILL, + 
W. A. PROUT. 

Cape Palma*, March 13th, 1846. 

We, Xeah and Xepah, Headmen of Half Berriby, do hereby, 
in the presence of our King and Governor and each, ratify and 
confirm the preceding contract with John B. Russwurm, A. Md. 
S. Col. Society, and bind ourselves and adherents to observe them. 

NEAH, Headman, -f- 

NEPAH, " + 
In presence of: 

TRUMAN, King, -\- 
YELLOW WILL. 



121 



Deed No. 10, of Tabou. 

FROM KING GEORGE, OF BASSA ; KING GEORGE MACAU- 
LEY, OF G. TABOU, AND KING CRAH, OF TABOU RIVER. 

Executed March 13th, 1846. 

Know all men by these presents : that we, King George, of 
Bassa; King George Macauley, of G. Tabou, and King Crah, of 
Tabou River, the true and lawful kings of the country of Tabou : 
Do, by these presents, grant, deed and convey unto John B. 
Russwurm, Agent of the Maryland State Colonization Society, 
and through and by him to said Society, the territory now 
under our authority, called and bounded as follows, \h. : East 
by Bassa country and the Atlantic ocean ; west by Barbo country 
and Taps nation ; north by Tarah nation and Bushman, and 
south by the Atlantic ocean. 

To have and to hold the same in common with our own people, 
and to occupy any part thereof not now in actual use as a town, 
village, farm, with all the privileges and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging, forever. 

And it is further agreed by said parties that the inhabitants of 
the above country and the kings and headmen thereof, and the 
American citizens of Maryland in Liberia, shall unite their forces 
in defence of their common country and of the territory already 
belonging to the Maryland State Colonization Society in Africa, 
to which this is now annexed. 

And it is further agreed that all palavers arising between any 
two kings residing in Maryland in Liberia, or between the sub- 
jects of any two kings, shall be set by the American Governor of 
the territory. 

And it is further agreed on the part of the said Kings George, 
G. Macauley and Crah, that no foreigner, or person not author- 
ized by the Maryland State Colonization Society, shall reside in 
or make trade in any part of said territory, other than that made 
in canoes with vessels in the offing. 



122 



, And further, that there shall never be, in either party, any 
obstruction to a free passage through their respective territories, 
either by land or water. 

The considerations of the above deed are as follows: 

Firxt. The above-named privileges of mutual defence. 

Second. The advantages accruing from trading posts being 
established in said territory, by and through the Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society. 

Third. The advantages of schools, which the children of the 
native inhabitants shall enjoy in common with American chil- 
dren. 

Fourth. The general benefit which the said Kings George, G. 
Macauley and Crah, executors hereof, foresee will result to their 
country and the inhabitants thereof, from intercourse with 
American colonists. 

Fifth. Such presents or dashes as they may hope to receive 
from the Colonial Agent for ceding the above-named territory. 

Signed, scaled and delivered at Cape Palmas, this 13th of 
March, A. D. One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty-six. 

Jxo. B. RrsswTKM, Ayt. Md. S. C.So. 

GKORGE, King, X 

GEORCJK MACAULKY, King, X 

CRAH, King, X 
In presence of: 
KING TRUMAX, 
YELLOW WILL, 
D. C. MI-FARLAX, 
Jxo. BAXKS. 

Town f fin**!/, Khiy George's, February 2'}d, 1*46. 

We, Weah, Governor, Xemah and Yakuh, headmen of Tabou 
River, Grand Tabou and Bassa, do hereby, in the presence of our 
kings and each other, ratify and confirm the preceding contract 



123 



with J. B. Russwurm, Agt. Md. St. C. Society, and bind ourselves 
and adherents to observe them. 

WEAK, Governor T. 

NEMAH, " Tnbon, 

YAKUH, " Bassa. 
Attest : 

TRUEMAX, King, X 
YELLOW WILL. X 



Deed No. n, of Garraway. 

FROM BLACK WILL, ANDREW LAWSON, DORP, A IT, HALF 

GARRAWAY, WHEREBOH AND YOIRRAII, KINUS AND 

HEADMEN OF THE GARRAWAY COUNTRY. 

Know all men by these presents: that, for the consideration 

hereafter mentioned, we, Black Will, Andrew Lawson, Dobbah, 

half Garraway, Whereboh and Yoirrah, Kings and headmen of 

the Garraway country, have granted and sold, and by these 

presents do grant and sell to the Maryland State Colonization 

Society of Maryland, in the United States of North America, the 

following tract of land, of which we are at this time lawfully 

seized by right of possession and descent. Beginning at a point 

north, at Poor river on the beach, from thence running into the 

interior eastwardly on the south side of said Poor river to the 

Trimbah country to a point ; thence running in a line separating 

the Trimbah country, Tabareah, Boloboh and Urabah territory 

south to Fish Town river to a point ; thence running along said 

river in a line west to the beach to a point ; thence running in a 

line north-westwardly on the sea beach to the point of starting. 

Including all the rivers, bays, creeks, timbers and mines on the 
same, excepting so much of said territory as is now under cultiva- 
tion by the inhabitants thereof, or such places as may be occupied 
by us or our descendants as towns or villages, reserving also the 
right of passing up and down all rivers and creeks, and of 



124 

traversing all sections of country not inhabited by colonists, the 
said Society to have and to hold the said territory for its special 
benefit and behoof. And we do agree to warrant and defend the 
same against the claim of all persons whatever. And it shall 
have power by its Agent to exercise all authority in the above- 
named territory, and we hereby acknowledge ourselves members 
of the Colony of Maryland in Liberia so far as to unite in its 
common defence in case of war or foreign aggression. 

And I, the said John B. Russwurm, in the name of said Society, 
do hereby guarantee to the said kings and their descendants the 
above reserved rights ; and further, that neither themselves or 
property shall be trespassed upon, or molested in any way what- 
ever, and no lands under cultivation nor towns nor villages shall 
be taken from them except by special contract, paying the desired 
remuneration therefor. 

\Ve also acknowledge the receipt of the following articles of 
merchandise from John B. Russwurm, Agent of the said Society 
and Governor of said territory, as full and ample compensation 
therefor : 

One Hhd. Tobacco. Twenty ps. Cloth. 

One Box Cutlasses. Twenty Muskets. 

One Keg Flints. Ten large Kegs Powder. 

Two Boxes Pipes. Ten Black Hats. 

Fifty Iron Bars. 

This instrument, with the triplicate hereof, is executed at Gar- 
raway, this tenth day of August, A. D. O^e Thousand Eight 
Hundred and Fortv-uine. 



BLACK WILL, his X 
DOBBAH, his X 

WHEREBAH, his X 
YOURAH, his X 

In presence of: YOIRRAH, his X 

J. H. STEWART, 

CHARLES H. LEE, 

YELLOW WILL, his X 



125 



We, whose names are affixed, Headmen of Garraway Town?, 
do ratit'v and confirm the foregoing contracts made by our 
Governors and Kings with John B. Russwurm, Agent of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society, this tenth day of August 
A. D. One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty-nine. 

YEBOII, his X 

Tow WEAH, his X 

GK.SSAU<;H, his X 

BLANYAH, his X 



THE AGREEMENT WHICH MADE MARYLAND 
IN LIBERIA INDEPENDENT. 



Whereas the people of Maryland in Liberia have represented to 
the Man-land State Colonization Society, that it is their desire, 
and that it will, in their opinion, materially promote their welfare, 
to dissolve all political connection with or subordination to the 
said Society, and with that view have, with the full consent and 
approbation of the Society, formed for themselves a Constitution 
and Form of Government, under which, when the same shall 
have been fully ratified and adopted, they design to declare them- 
selves a Free, Sovereign and Independent State ; 

And whereat the Maryland State Colonization Society, having 
in their establishment of the colony at Cape Palmas, and in their 
government of the same, been always desirous to improve the 
condition of the free people of color of Maryland, by placing them 
in a position in which they would find no obstacles in the way of 
their advancement ; and the Society whilst recognizing with hum- 
ble gratitude to the Giver of all good, in the present condition 
and future prospects of the people of Maryland in Liberia, the 
blessings which have thus far crowned their labors, humbly 

17 



126 



trust that the change now proposed to be made in the relations 
between the Society and the people, may still further advance the 
prosperity of those for whose welfare they have labored. 

And ich?ref.i8, in severing the political connection heretofore exist- 
ing between the said Society and the people of Maryland in Liberia, 
it is necessary and proper to enter into an arrangement in reference 
to the public and other property in Maryland in Liberia, now 
belonging to the Society ; for which purpose William A. Prout 
and William Cassell have been duly appointed by the people of 
Maryland in Liberia commissioners to confer with the Society. 

Now, therefore, the Maryland State Colonization Society on the 
one part, and William A. Prout and William Cassell, Commissioners 
of the people of Maryland in Liberia, on the other part, have, on 
this fourteenth day of February, in the year of Our Lord, One 
Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-four, in the City of Balti- 
more, entered into the following agreement, which, if duly ratified 
within the space of twelve months by the government which may 
be established by the people of Man-land in Liberia, shall be 
binding both on the said Society and on the said government and 
people, to wit : 

ARTICLE I. The Society hereby agrees to cede all its public lands 
within the limits of Maryland in Liberia to the people and govern- 
ment of that Republic, subject to the following provisions, viz. : 

Flr-<t. The Government shall allow to all future emigrants out of 
any unoccupied or unsold lands, instead of the quantity heretofore 
allowed by the regulations of the Society, a farm lot of ten acres, 
or a town lot of one quarter of an acre in any new settlement 
that may hereafter be made ; or ten acres for a farm lot in the 
present settlement, the town lot being the same as heretofore, viz., 
an eighth of an acre ; and when the Government sells any of the 
public lands, every alternate lot or farm, or section or square 
mile, shall be left unsold, to be assigned to emigrants. 

Second. All sales .shall be at auction, to the highest bidder. 
Lands after having been offered at auction and unsold, may be 
sold at private sale, not below a price to be fixed by law. 



Third. The tracts reserved fur emigrants may, with the assent 
of the Society, be exchanged for others of equal value, or sold 
and the proceeds devoted to the purposes of education. 

Fourth. The Government of Maryland in Liberia shall appro- 
priate at least ten per cent, of the proceeds of the sale of public 
lands to school or educational purposes. 

Fifth. The Society shall retain the right of locating emigrants 
in anv of the present settlements, or in any new settlement that 
may be made. 

Sixth. Xew settlements are to be formed by the concurrence 
and agreement of the Government of Maryland in Liberia and 
the .Society. 

Seventh. The lands held by the State for the occupancy of 
emigrants shall be exempt from taxation. 

Eighth. If the Government of the United States shall at any 
time determine to send to Maryland in Liberia recaptured 
Africans, the Society shall thereupon have the right to claim, and 
to have immediately set apart for their use, by the Government 
of Maryland in Liberia, not exceeding one hundred acres, as the 
Society may require, out of any of the public lands not previously 
sold or appropriated. 

Ninth. The Society shall retain the public store and the wharf 
thereto appertaining, the present receptacles for emigrants, with 
the land thereto contiguous, sufficient to accommodate the occu- 
pants, and the west half of the public farm, dividing it through 
the center by a line running northerly at right angles with the 
Maryland avenue; and, whenever required, the Government shall 
further cede to the Society in each new settlement that may be 
made, a lot of suitable size for the reception and accommodation 
of new emigrants. All property retained by, or which may here- 
after be ceded to the Society, with all improvements which the 
Society may make thereon, shall be exempt from taxation so long 
a* the Society shall retain the same ; but the Society shall take 
such care of all their lote as the citizens are required to take of 



128 

theirs, in order to prevent their becoming nuisances ; and in case 
of neglect the town authorities shall be authorized to abate 

o 

such nuisances at the expense of the Society. 

ARTICLE II. The Society shall have the privilege of intro- 
ducing into Maryland in Liberia, free of duty, all its stores, 
provisions and furniture for the use of emigrants, as. well as all 
other articles which it may at any time send there to be sold for 
the purpose of providing means for the reception, accommodation 
and support of emigrants, so long as they may remain under the 

care of the Society ; and all vessels chartered bv the Society and 

' 

carrying emigrants shall be free from liirht-lioiise and anchorage 

v CT C 

duties. 

ARTICLE III. Recaptured Africans shall be admitted into 
Maryland in Liberia, should the United States Government desire 
to send them there, and make provision for their support. 

ARTICLE IV. The Society shall give to the Government of 
Maryland in Liberia the Government house and public offices, 
forts, and all munitions of war now in the territory, also the ware- 
house last erected by Governor Russwurm, belonging to the 
Society. All property of every description not expressly ceded 
by these articles of agreement to the Government and people of 
Maryland in Liberia, is reserved to the Society, and may be dis- 
posed of solely at its discretion. 

ARTICLE V. All emigrants hereafter sent to Maryland in 
Liberia by the Society shall have secured the same rights of 
citizenship in Maryland in Liberia, and upon the same terms and 
conditions as have been enjoyed by emigrants heretofore sent 
there by the Society. 

ARTICLE VI. In case the Maryland State Colonization So- 
ciety shall at any time hereafter become united with or merged in 

v (. 

any other colonization society ; or should the duties now and here- 
after to be performed by said State Society in regard to emigrants 
from Maryland be assumed by, or devolve upon the present, or 
any future colonization agents, appointed by the State of Mary- 



129 

land, then and in either of such cases, all the provisions of the 
present agreement shall he mutually binding upon the Govern- 
ment and people of Maryland in Liberia on the one hand, and on 
such other colonization society, or on such State colonization 
agents, as the case may be, respectively ; and shall secure to each 
and all of said parties the benefits of the same. 

ARTICLE VII. These articles may be altered at any time by 
the mutual agreement of the President and Managers of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society and the Government of 
Maryland in Liberia. 

ARTICLE VIII. It is hereby agreed that after the Govern- 
ment of Maryland in Liberia shall have been duly organized, 
and shall have acted upon and duly ratified the foregoing Articles, 
as herein provided for, and shall have furnished the Society with 
the duly authenticated evidence thereof, the Society shall be 
bound, and hereby binds itself to execute and transmit to the said 

Government, such Instrument of writing or Deed as shall be by 

, 

said Republic deemed necessary fully to confirm, convey and 
vest in said Government the title in fee simple to all the said 
lands, subject only to the conditions and reservations herein 
contained. 

In testimony whereof, the undersigned Commissioners of Mary- 

* * 

land in Liberia have hereunto set their hands and seals, and the 
undersigned President, Vice-Presidents and Managers of the 
Maryland State Colonization Society have hereunto set their 
hands and caused the seal of the said Society to be hereto affixed. 
Done at the City of Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States 
of America, on this twenty-second day of February, in the year 

of Our Lord One Thousand Ei<rht Hundred and Fi-ftv-tbur. 



\V. A. PROUT, | BAL. f \ 

x ^\ f Commissioners. 

WM. C ASS ELL, I s i. A t. . r J 

CHARLES HOWARD, Pres. M<1. State Col. 



130 

HUGH DAVEY EVANS, 

JOHN HANSON BRISCOE, V. P., 

WM. CRANE, 



Vice-Pretiden ts. 



GEORGE S. GIBSON, 
WM. MASON. 

Board of Mannr/ers : 

WILLIAM F. GILES, THOS. WILSON, 

CHARLES F. MAYER, . J. H. McCuLLOH, 
COMFORT TIFFANY, J. MASON CAMPBELL, 

WILLIAM WOODWARD, ISAAC TYSON, JUN., 

WM. H. KEIGHLER, FRANCIS T. KING, 

\ 

ISAAC P. COOK, CHAS. J. M. GWINN, 

J. HOWARD MC-HENRY, W. A. TALBOTT. 
F. W. BRUNE, JR., Recording Secretary. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of: 

JAMES HALL, Genl. Ayt. Md. S. Col. Society. 
JOHN SEYS, Trav. Agent. 
W. McLAiN, 
GEO. W. S. HALL. 



CODE OF LAWS FOR KING FREEMAN. 



1. All men must do to each other as they would have men do 
unto them. 

2. All men must speak truth : none but bad men lie. 

3. If a man kill another man because he hated and wanted to 
kill him, he must be hung. 

4. If a man kill another man, and did not hate him or want 
to kill him, but did not take care, and killed him, he must go to 
jail and be punished as the judge says. 



131 









5. If two men quarrel, and fight on the spot, and did not hate 
before they fought, or want to kill, and one kill the other, he 
must go to jail and be punished as the judge says. 

6\ If one man kill another, and did not hate him, or want to 

kill him, and tried not to kill him, but killed him, he must not 

t 
be punished. 

7. If one man trv to kill another, and the man whom he tries 

* 

to kill, fight him and kill him to save his own life, he must not be 
punished. 

8. If a man make rape on a woman, and she not willing, he 
jf must be hung. 

9. If a man try to make rape on a woman, and she fight and 
kill him, she must not be punished. 

10. If a man burn a house in the night where anybody are to 
sleep, he must be hung. 

11. If a man burn a house at any other time, or a house where 
nobody are to sleep, or pull down a house which is not his, or 
break into another man's house because he wants to steal, he must 
go to jail and be punished as the judge says. 

12. If a man, or two men, or many men, take a man, or woman, 
or child, and sell them for slaves, they must be hung. 

13. If a man hurt another by beating or cutting him very 
much, he must go to jail and be punished as the judge says. 

14. If a man take away another man's wife, or use her as his 
wife, he must go to jail and be punished as the judge says. 

15. If a man have one wife, and while she lives take another 
wife, so as to have more than one wife living, he must go to jail 
and t)e punished as the judge says ; besides, he must give to both 
wives and their children a house to live in, and enough to eat and 
drink as long as they live. 

16. If a man steal, he must give back what he stole, and besides, 
he must go to jail and be punished as the judge says. 

17. If a woman do anything wrong, she must be punished the 
mime as a man. 



132 



. 18. If a man kill or hurt a woman, he must be punished as if 
he had killed or hurt a man. 

19. If a man or woman do any thing which these or any other 
laws say is wrong, the constable, when he is told of it by anybody, 
must catch the man or woman that has done wrong, and bring 
them before the judge. If the constable will not do so, he must 
pay for the wrong and be punished as the judge says. If he looks 
good and tries to find the man or woman that did wrong, but 
cannot find them, he must not be punished. 

20. If a man or woman under one king, steal or hurt a man or 
woman under another king or governor, the king under whom 
the man or woman is that did so must make that man or woman 
that did the wrong pay for it, and be punished besides. If the 
king will not do this, he must pay for the wrong that has been. 
d;me himself. 

21. When any man or woman is said to have done any wrong, 
the judge must hear what everv bodv says that was there or 

tf O IT 

knew anything about it, and if he thinks the man or woman has 
done the wrong, which is called being Guilty, he must punish the 
man or woman for doing wrong according to the law, but if the 
judge, after he has heard what every body who was there has to 
say, does not think the man or woman guilty, he must let him or 
her go free. The judge must go by what the people say that was 
there or knew anything about it. 

22. The judge cannot punish, unless he sees the wrong done, or 
hears other people that he can believe, say they saw it done, or 
saw such things as make the judge know it was done. 

23. If a man says before the judge that any other man or woman 
did wrong, and speak lie when he says so, he must go to jail and 
be punished as the judge says, for this is bad. 

24. The king must make judges to hear all things which are 
wrong among his people, and to try all men or women that have 
done wrong ; and the judges must be the best and wisest men 
among the king's people. 



133 

25. The American men must be tried bv the American judges, 

* 

and when the dispute is between a native and an American man, 
there must be a native judge and an American judge, and if they 
don't agree, the American governor of the colony must settle the 
business. 

26. If any man kill or hurt another man's cattle beasts, he 
must pay for it, and go to jail and be punished as the judge says. 



SONG OF THE EMIGRANTS TO CAPE 

PALMAS. 



For Africa ! for Africa ! our way lies o'er the deep, 

Where ride we crests of briny waves and down their valleys sweep : 

We leave behind the white sea-gulls at limit of their flight, 

Until around Cape Palmas, again we'll greet their sight ; 

As though the feathered things had flown to welcome us, when we 

Shall tread, as tread we Afric's shore, the footsteps of the free. 

For Africa ! for Africa ! our flag is floating fair ; 

We have taken Freedom's banner, though its stars are wanting 

there ; 

But, in their place, the holy sign is on the a/Aire field, 
And cross and stripes have now become our standard and our 

shield ; 
And yet, where Afric's palm trees wave, where whirls the dread 

simoon, 
May mark where pilgrims, wending home, may loose their sandal 

shoon. 

For Africa ! for Africa ! we bear the glorious light 

Whose radiance from revealed truth is more than sunbeam bright. 

18 






134 

Where hearts of wandering thousands no softening thoughts have 

known, 

Where prayer has never yet gone up to Heaven's eternal throne, 
We'll plant the cross, the idol break, we'll teach the sacred word 
Until, through heathen Africa, our God shall be adored. 

For Africa ! for Africa ! oh ! who would stay behind ; 

The anchor hangs upon the bow, the sails swell in the wind : 

Our fatherland, the love of thee within our heart now reigns 

Then bid thy wanderers welcome through all thy boundless plains ; 

Yield, from thy fruitful bosom, a harvest to our toil, 

Until we find, 'neath shadowing palms, our graves within thy soil. 

L. 

November 27, 1834. 



The flag of Liberia is the American flag, with a cross of equal 
arms of white in place of the stars. 






I IN" ID IB IX . 



Absorption of Maryland in Liberia 
into Liberia proper, 84. 

Act of Maryland of 1831, provisions 
of, 16. 

Act of Congress of 1819, 9. 

Alligator, schooner, 9. 

Am. Col. Society, 9 ; letters to, 29 ; 
opposed to State action, 14 ; agree- 
ment with, 14. 

Am. Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, undertake to estab- 
lish free schools, 41 (note) ; letter 
to, 29, 60, 61. 

Anchorage duty established, 63. 

Ann, sailing of the, 37 ; passengers 
by the, 37 (note) ; voyage of the, 
38, 39. 

Annapolis, meetings of the State 
Society at, 9. 

Anniversary of settlement celebrated, 
63. 

Appendix, 93. 

Appropriation, State, renewed in 
1852, 74; renewed in 1858, 84. 

Ardent spirits, use of, or traffic in, 
prohibited, 22. 

Auxiliary societies, 10. 

Ayres, Dr. Eli, 9. 



B 



Baker, Dr. Samuel, on committee to 
prepare constitution, 13. 



Bullah, Simleh's, visit to the Society, 
48 ; his speech, 48 ; his views 
about ex post facto laws, 49 (note). 

Baltimore, contribution from, in 1829, 
13. 

Baphro, King of Grand Cavallv, 
40. 

Baptist Mission, 86. 

Bassa, deed of, 112. 

Berriby, Grand, deed of, 117, 119. 

Bowreh, deed of, 103. 

Building at Cape Palmas, April 15, 
1834, 44. 

Bulama, Island of, suggested, 11. 

Bulyemah, deed of, 99. 

c 

Cape Palmas selected, 24; deed of, 

40; improvements at, in 1853, 85, 

86 ; commissioners of Am. Bd. of 

Foreign Missions, 37 ; deed of, 

95. 
Cassell, W., appointed chief justice, 

71. 

Cavallv, deed of, 95, 98, 105. 
Celebration of anniversary of the 

Colony, 1)3. 
< Chesapeake and Liberia Trading 

Company, Ii9. 

<'hief justice provided for, 70. 
Circulating medium, 51 ; form of 

note, 59. 
Commissioners of State fund, under 

Act of 1831, 15 ; agreement with, 

for advances, 27. 

135 






136 



Constables appointed by King Free- 
man, 48. 

Constitution of Maryland in Liberia, 
31 ; circumstance attending its 
adoption, 31 (note). 

Contribution, in 1829, from Balti- 
more, 11. 

Contributions of the State Society to 
the cause, 82 ; by profit and loss 
and from collections, 82. 

Congregational mission, 86. 

Cotton, ordinance making it a ten- 
der, 55. 

Custom of natives, in purchases, 58. 



D 



Drayton, William S., Lieutenant 

Governor, 81. 
Deeds African deeds, 95. 
Denah, deed of, 108. 



E 



Elizabeth, ship, chartered by V. S., 

9. 

Emigrants by the Ann, 37. 
Emigration of A. C. S. in 1828, 11. 
Evans, Hugh Davy, his work for the 

Society, 54. 

Expedition by Orion, 14. 
Executive and judiciary functions 

separated, 70. 



Finley, Robert S., visit to Baltimore, 

12. 

Flag of Maryland in Liberia, 28. 
Free schools for natives, 40. 
Freeman, King, difficulty about rice 

with, 46, 47 ; his letter to the 

State Society, 50-51 (note) ; code of 

laws for, 130. 



G 

Garraway, deed of, 95, 98. 
Grahway, deed of, 123. 

H 

Hall, Dr. James, passenger in Orion, 
14 ; recommended as agent, 24 ; 
his letter to Dr. Ayres descriptive 
of Cape Palmas, 25; his arrival in 
Baltimore and acceptance of the 
office, 27 ; his account of fitness, 26 
(note) ; negotiating for purchase of 
Cape Palnias, 40 ; proclamation of, 
as governor, 44; makes King Free- 
man pay for thefts by his people, 
47 ; rescue of Popo from Sassa 
wood ordeal, 57 ; resignation of, 
53 ; appointed general agent, 59 ; 
active in closing native war, 83; 
school at Cape Palmas, 85. 

Harper name given to settlement 
at Cape Palmas, 52. 

Haidee, deed of, 102. 

Hersey, Rev. John, 37. 

Hoffman, Peter, on committee to 
prepare constitution for State So- 
ciety, 13. 

Holmes, Mr. Oliver, Junior, ap- 
pointed temporary governor, 54. 

Howard, B. C., elected president of 
Society, 52. 

Howard, Charles, president, succeed- 
ing Latrobe, 80 ; his character, 80. 



Improvements at Cape Palmas in 
1853, 85, 86. 

Independence, question of, mooted, 
75 ; address of committee in re- 
gard to, 75 ; commissioners to ne- 
gotiate appointed, 76 ; treaty of, 
77 ; agreement of, 125. 



137 



Injuries, ordinance for redress of, 56. 
International Association, 90. 



Justices of the Peace appointed by 
King Freeman, 48. 



Latrobe, J. H. B., resolution in 1828, 
11 ; on committee to prepare con- 
stitution for State Society, 30 ; re- 
ports constitution for Md. in Lib., 
36 ; reports ordinance for tempo- 
rary government, 33 ; reports let- 
ter of instructions to Dr. Hall, 36 ; 
elected president, 56 ; village of, 
87 ; speech of, in 1828, app., 95. 

Lafayette, expedition by, 14 ; unfor- 
tunate result of, 17. 

Liberia packet, launch of the, 69. 

Light-house supplied with new lan- 
tern, 65, 90. 

Limit of Liberia, 87. 

M 

Maryland State Colonization Society, 

10 ; organized, 13 ; 
Maryland in Liberia, constitution of, 

31. 
Maryland, the State of, embarks in 

colonization on its own resources, 

23 ; renews the appropriation of 

1831, 74, 84. 

Map of the colony, first, 52 . 
Mount Tubman, 63. 
Monument to Gov. Russwnrm, 73. 
Margaret Mercer, schooner, 25; Miss, 

25 (note). 

Mary Caroline Stevens, 83 (note). 
Mason, Thomas, Secretary of State, 

81. 



McGill, Dr. Samuel F., appointed 
governor, 74 ; George R., 39. 

Mesurada, Cape, 9. 

Methodist church, 86. 

Military duty of employees of the 
A. B. C. F. M., 60, 61; report of 
committee in regard to, 61. 

Monroe, President, construction of 
Act of 1819, 9. 

Monrovia, The Ann reaches, 38. 

N 

New settlement, committee on, 18 ; 

report of committee, 18. 
Negapos, deed of, 106. 
Nicolson, Captain, of the Potomac, 

report of, 56; present of, to the 

colony, 56 (note). 

o 

Officers of original Society, 13. 

Ordinance, for temporary government 
of Maryland in Liberia, reported 
by Mr. Latrobe, 33 ; for redress of 
injuries, 56 ; for maintenance of 
authority, 64; separating execu- 
tive and judicial functions, 70; 
providing for public worship, 72. 

Orion, expedition by, 14. 

Orphan Asylum, Episcopal, 86. 



Palmas, Cape, proposed as a site, 11 ; 
recommended by committee, 19 ; 
resolution recommending, 20 ; pur- 
chase of, from natives, 40, 41 ; de- 
scription of, 42 ; selection of site 
of Harper, at, 43. 

Parmah, King of Cape Palmas, 40. 

Plorah, deed of, 101. 

Popo, rescue of, from Sassa wood 
ordeal, 57. 



138 



Potomac, visit of frigate, to Cape 
Pal mas, 55. 

Proclamation of Governor Hall, 44. 

Profit and loss account, 88. 

Property, ordinance for taking care 
of movable, 52. 

Protestant Episcopal Mission, 86. 

Prout, W. A., commissioner to nego- 
tiate independence, 76 ; elected 
governor, 81 ; death of governor, 
82. 

Public worship, ordinance provid- 
ing for, 72. 

R 

Refusal to receive criminal, par- 
doned on condition of emigrating 
to Maryland in Liberia, 69. 

Resolution proposing State action, 
12. 

Rock town, deed of, 110. 

Routine of life at the Cape, 63. 

Russwurm, J. B., appointed gov- 
ernor, 54; visits the U. S., 71; 
dinner to governor, 72; death of, 
73 ; address to the people on occa- 
sion of his death, 73; monument 
to, 73. 

S 

San Pedro river, 87. 

Sanford, Hon. Henry S., agent of in- 
ternational association, 90. 

Sassa wood ordeal, 50; Dr. Hall's 
rescue of native, 50. 

Scharf s history, 7. 

School, the Hall, at Cape Palmar, 85. 

Seal of the State Society, 28. 

Separate State action proposed, 12; 
opposed by A. C. S., 14. 

Sherbro Island, 9. 

Slavery, feeling in regard to, in 1831, 
19 (note) its extirpation the ob- 
ject of the State Society, 31. 



Song of the Cape Palmas emigrants, 
133. 

Southampton massacre, 14. 

Sovereignty, ordinance touching the, 
of Md. in Lib., 59. 

State Colonization Society incorpo- 
rated, 10. 

State of Maryland, first appropria- 
tion, 10 ; refuses to repeal the an- 
nual appropriation, 68. 

St. Mark's Episcopal Church, 86. 

Stockton, Robert F., 9. 



Tariff, 65, 66. 

Tabou, deed of, 121. 

Tahoe, deed of, 115. 
64. 

Temperance, a feature of the State 
Society in the settlement, 21 ; sal- 
utary influence of the principle. 
64. 

Thieving by natives, 47. 

Thompson, James M., 39. 

Turner, Nat, 14. 

V '. . 

Vandalia, L~. S. ship, visits the col- 
ony, 62 ; conduct of one of the 
officers, 62. 

Vessels built and purchased, 88, 89 
(note). 

w 

War with the natives, 82. 

Weah Bolio, King of Grahway, 

40. 
Wilson, Rev. J. Leighton, 37 ; Mrs., 

description of, 42, 43 (note). 
Wood, Anthony, appointed major in 

command, 63. 
Wynkoop, Rev. S. R., 37. 



\